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English Translations of the Targums

This List of Targums is based upon a list given here, these are older works (No later than 1930), but they are easily accessible.

Targum of Canticles

Exposition of the Book of Solomon’s Song by J. Gill (2nd Edition 1751) contained a translation of the Targum, which I’ve been unable to locate.

A newer translation (still old) of the 1st chapter is found in C.D. Ginsburg commentary on Song of Songs (1857) on pages 29-33

Found here

A translation may also be found in the series Translations from Hebrew and Aramaic  with the volume by H. Gollancz (1908) on pages 15-90

Found here

Also located here (with other Jewish works).

Second Targum on Esther / Targum Sheni of Esther

This is found in the English translation of P.S. Cassel’s commentary An Explanatory Commentary on Esther tr. A. Bernstein (1888) found on pages 263-344.

Found Here

Targum of Qoheleth

Found in Coheleth, Commonly called the Book of Ecclesiastes in 1861, by C.D. Ginsburg on pages 502-519

Found here

Targum Onkelos and Jonathan on the Pentateuch

J.W. Etheridge The Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel on the Pentateuch with the Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum (2 Volumes 1862-1865)

Volume 1 Here

Volume 2 Here

Targum of Isaiah

Found in The Chaldee Paraphrase of the Prophet Isaiah by C.W.H. Pauli in 1871

Found here

Targum of Ruth

A translation of the Targum of Ruth may be found in Studia orientalia volume 2  (1928) by A Saarisalo on pages 88-104

Located Here

Older Translations that I’m unable to find

I have been unable to locate these works, which should be public domain by now. If anyone can point me to them, it would be appreciated.

Targum on Song of Songs

As noted above a Targum of Canticles is found in the work Exposition of the Book of Solomon’s Song by J. Gill (2nd Edition 1751) Unfortunately I cannot find an early enough edition on the internet, Gill’s later editions of this commentary took it out.

Later edition can be Found Here, it still references the Targums a lot.

Targums of Ruth and Jonah

From O.T. Crane (1886) in The Targums on the Books of Ruth and Jonah: Literally translated from the Chaldee.

Targum on Lamentations

In 1893 by A.W. Greenup, The Targum on the Book of Lamentations

Other Resources

The following are online translations that I have found. http://targum.info/ has been particularly helpful. If there are any other online English translations, please leave a comment

Targum Psalms

a new translation by Edward M. Cook, 2001

Originally Found Here

Now Located on Web Archive

Targum Obadiah

A Translation by Thomas Lenihan, 2015

Located Here

Targumim of the Megillot

Song of Songs

A Translation by Jay C. Treat, 2004

Located Here


A translation by Samson H. Levey, 1998

Found Here

And a Translation by C.M.M. Brady, 2016

Found Here


Translation by C.M.M. Brady, 2008

Found Here


Sefaria also seems to have some Targums translated

Original Languages

Here’s a quick list of online resources for the Targums in their original language, I’m sure there’s more, but didn’t bother to look

A Few different Targums

Targum Jonathan on Joshua and Judges

Targum Onqelos (According to Yemenite Manuscripts)

This List was last updated 3/15/2018, with some additions and fixed links. If there are any broken links, please leave a comment. 


2 Peter Bibliography


Abbott, E. A., “The Second Epistle of St. Peter,Expositor 2 (1882): 49–63, 139–53, 204–19.

———, Contrast: or a prophet and a forger, 1903.

Alford, H., “The Second Epistle General of Peter,The Greek Testament, Vol. 4, (Boston: Lee and Shepard, Publishes, 1878), 138-158.

Boys-Smith, E. P., “‘Interpretation’ or ‘Revealment’: 2 Pet. i. 20. II,Expository Times 8 (1896–97): 331–32.

Bigg, Charles, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1902).

Bloomquist, Gregory. The Epicurean Tag in Plutarch: Implications for New Testament Study.

Callan, Terrance, “The Christology of the Second Letter of Peter”, Biblica 82 (2001), pp. 253-263.

———, “The Soteriology of the Second Letter of Peter.” Biblica 82 (2001), pp. 549-559

———, “Use of the Letter of Jude by the Second Letter of Peter”. Biblica 85.1 (2004): 42-64.

———, “Comparison of Humans to Animals in 2 Peter 2,10b-22″. Biblica 90.1 (2009): 101-113.

Chase, F. H., “Second Epistle of Peter,A Dictionary of the Bible (J. Hastings, ed.; New York: Scribners, 1900), 3.796–818.

Charles, R. H. ed. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913). (Can be found here: Volume 1 and Volume 2)

———,The Apocalypse of Baruch. London (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896)

———, The Assumption of Moses. (London: A & C Black, 1897).

Calvin, John. Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles. Tr. J. Owen. Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1855.

Cox, S., “From Starlight to Sunlight. 2 Peter i. 16–20,Expositor 1/1 (1875), 169–85.

———, “Lot. 2 Peter II. 7, 8,Expositor 2/8 (1884): 270–80.

Deissmann, G. A. Bible Studies. Tr. A. Grieve. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1901.

Dunnett, W. M., “The Hermeneutics of Jude and 2 Peter: The Use of Ancient Jewish Traditions,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 31 (1988): 287–92.

Edmundson, G. The Church of Rome in the First Century. Bampton Lectures 1913. London: Longmans, Green, 1913.

Falconer, R. A., “Is Second Peter a Genuine Epistle to the Churches of Samaria?” Expositor 6/5 (1902): 459–72; 6/6 (1902): 47–56, 117–27, 218–27.

Farrar, F. W., “Dr. Abbott on the Second Epistle of St. Peter,” Expositor 2/3 (1882): 401–23.

———, “The Second Epistle of St. Peter and Josephus,” Expositor 3/8 (1888): 58–69.

Faulkner, J.A. “The End of the World,The Homiletical Review 42/6 (1901) 542-545.

Fronmüller , G.F.C., A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures : 2 Peter, tr. J. Isidor Mombert,  (New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1900)

Green, Michael, 2 Peter Reconsidered, 1961. London: The Tyndale Press, 1968. Pbk. ISBN: 0851110207. pp.37.

Heide, G. Z. “What Is New about the New Heaven and the New Earth? A Theology of Creation from Revelation 21 and 2 Peter 3.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40 (1997): 37–56.

Hupper, William G., “Additions to ‘A 2 Peter Bibliography,’” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 23 (1980): 65–66.

James, M. R., The Second Epistle General of Peter and the General Epistle of Jude (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912).

———, The Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament. London: S. P. C. K./New York: Macmillan, 1920.

Kennard, D. W. “Petrine Redemption: Its Meaning and Extent. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30 (1987): 399–405.

Kruger, M. J. “The Authenticity of 2 Peter.Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42 (1999): 645–71.

Lias, J. J., “The Genuineness of the Second Epistle of St. Peter,Bibliotheca Sacra 70 (1913): 599–606.

Lightfoot, J. B. The Apostolic Fathers. ed. and completed J. R. Harmer. London: Macmillan, 1891. (Part 1: Vol. 1, Vol. 2; Part 2: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, and Vol. 3)

Lumby, J. R. The Epistles of St. Peter. Expositor’s Bible (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1893).

———,The Speaker’s Commentary Hebrews-The Revelation of St. John, vol. 4, ed. Cook, F. C., (London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1881), pp. 221-259

Mayor, Joseph B., “Notes on the Text of the Second Epistle of Peter,Expositor 6/10 (1904): 284–93.

———, The Epistle of St. Jude and the Second Epistle of St. Peter (New York: Macmillan and Company, 1907).

Plumptre, E. H., The General Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903).

Robson, E. I., Studies in the Second Epistle of St. Peter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915).

Salmon, G. A Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament. 7th ed. (London:  John Murray, 1885).

Simms, A. E., “Second Peter and the Apocalypse of Peter,Expositor 5/8 (1898): 460–71.

Snyder, John, “A 2 Peter Bibliography,Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 22 (1979): 265–67.

Spence, R. M., “Private Interpretation,Expository Times 8 (1896–97): 285–86.

Vander Heeren, Achille. “Epistles of Saint Peter.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911.

Wallace, Daniel B., “A Brief Note on a Textual Problem in 2 Peter 3:10.”

———, “Second Peter: Introduction, Argument, and Outline.”

———, “The Translation of 2 Peter 1:19a.”

Zahn, T. Introduction to the New Testament. vol. 2. Tr. M. W. Jacobus and others. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909). (Note, the One Linked is a 3 Volume in 1 Edition)

[1] The Bibliography was prepared with help from the following commentaries’ bibliographies, as well as my own additions.  Jerome H. Neyrey, 2 Peter, Jude: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008); Richard J. Bauckham, vol. 50, Word Biblical Commentary: 2 Peter, Jude, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2002); Thomas R. Schreiner, vol. 37, 1, 2 Peter, Jude; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2003); Peter H. Davids, The Letters of 2 Peter and Jude, The Pillar New Testament commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 2006).

As always if anyone has any scholarly works which could be added to this bibliography please leave a comment.

The Book of Judges Bibliography

Here’s a Bibliography that I mentioned I would do on the Tobit one, I’m much more interested in expanded this one.  All the works here are free and/or Public Domain and most (if not all at the moment) of them predate the 1930s and thus reflect the scholarship at that time.   These were found via Googlebooks, and Webachieve.  Again if anyone would like to suggest a book which should be added please, comment.

Burney, C. F.

1918 The Book of Judges with Introduction and Notes. London: Rivingtons.

Cassel, Paulus.

1872 The Book of Judges. Lang’s Commentary Series.  New York: C. Scribner & co. 4:189-261

Cooke, G.A.

1892 The History and Song of Deborah. Oxford: Clarendon Press Depot.

Curtis, Edward Lewis

1913 The Book of Judges. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Driver, S. R.

1888–89 “The Origin and Structure of the Book of Judges.” JQR 1: 258-270.

Drum, Walter

1907–14 “Judges.” The Catholic Encyclopedia, 15 vols. New York: Appleton. 8: ?

Hervey, A.C.

1888 The Book of Judges.  The Speaker’s Commentary, ed. F.C. Cook, 2: 115–240. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & co.

Keil,C. F.

1887 Judges.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  Tr. Martin, James. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 4:237-464.

König, Eduard

1898–1904a “Judges, Book of .” HDB, 5 vols. Edinburgh: Clark. 2: 809–20.

Lias, John James

1896 The Book of Judges: With Map, Notes, and Introduction.  Cambridge: University Press.

Moore, George F.

1901 A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges. International Critical Commentary, New York: Scribner’s.

1899-1907 ‘Judges.’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica, 4 vols.   London: A and C Black. 2:775-9

Paterson, J.A.

1910 “Judges, the Book of.” 355-9 in The Temple Dictionary of the Bible.  New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.  355-9

Ryssel, Victor

1903 Judges, Book of. JE, ed. Isidore Singer, 12 vols. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. ?: 377–81.

Thackeray, Henry St. John

1921 The Septuagint and Jewish Worship. London: H. Milford.

Vernon, Ambrose W.

1908 “The Religious Value of the Figure Samson.”  Biblical World 34. 33-8

Tobit Bibliography

Most of these works in the following Bibliography predate 1920s and thus reflect the scholarship of that day.  Which wouldn’t include for example:  the finding of Tobit among the Dead Sea Scrolls which meant the original language of Tobit had yet to be proven conclusively, (not to say that many didn’t assume such an origin).  But, more importantly every work here is free, found online via GoogleBooks, The Web Archive, or if need be from various websites which have hosted them.

For the most part I started from Carey A. Moore’s Bibliography and used the Bibliography from several of the works mentioned here, I then sought out which of the works that I could find.  If anyone would like to suggest a book or books which should be added, please leave a reply[1].

Abrahams, Israel

1888–89 “Tobit’s Dog.” JQR 1: 288.

1893 “Tobit and Genesis.” JQR 5: 348–50.

Ball, Charles J.

1892 Tobit[2]. The Apocrypha: Various Renderings and Readings. London: Eyre and Spottiswoods.

Bissell, Edwin

C.1886 “The Book of Tobit.” The Apocrypha of the Old Testament, with Historical Introductions and Notes and Explanatory. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Cowley, Arthur

1923 Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford: Clarendon. Pp. 204–48.

Drum, Walter

1907–14 “Tobias.” The Catholic Encyclopedia, 15 vols. New York: Appleton. 14: 749–53.

Erbt, W.

1899-1907 ‘Tobit .’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica, 4 vols.   London: A and C Black. 4: 607-617

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. SJ.

1997 The Written Word: Fragment from Tobit

Fuller, John M.

1888 Tobit. Apocrypha of the Speaker’s Commentary, ed. H. Wace, 1: 149–240. London: John Murray.

Gaster, Moses

1896–97 “Two Unknown Hebrew Versions of the Tobit Legend.” PSBA 1896 18: 208–22, 259–71; 1897 19: 27–38 Volume 18 and Volume 19

Harris, J. Rendel, Agnes S. Lewis, and Frederick C. Conybeare

1913 The Story of Ahikar. APOT, ed. Robert H. Charles. Oxford: Clarendon. 2: 715–84.

1898[3] Ahikar from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek and Slavonic Versions. London: C.J. Clay and Sons.

James, Montague R.

1897 Apocrypha Anecdota, 2d ser., Texts and Studies 5/1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1913 Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur. The Museum Publication of the Babylonian Section, vol. 3. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Kohler, Kaufmann

1903 Demonology. JE, ed. Isidore Singer, 12 vols. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. 4: 514–20.

Marshall, John T.

1898–1904a “Asmodeus .” HDB, 5 vols. Edinburgh: Clark. 1: 172–73.

1898–1904b “Tobit, the Book of.” HDB 4: 785–89.

Moulton, James H.

1899–1900 “The Iranian Background of Tobit.” ExpTim 11: 257–60.

1913 “The Magian Material of Tobit.” Early Zoroastrianism. London: Williams and Norgate. Esp. pp. 99, 332

Neubauer, Adolph

1878 The Book of Tobit: A Chaldee Text from a Unique Manuscript in the Bodleian Library, with Other Rabbinical Texts, English Translations and the Itala. Oxford: Clarendon.

Nickelsburg, George W.E.

1988 The Experience of Demons (and Angels) in 1 Enoch, Jubilees, and the Book of Tobit.

Oesterley, William O. E.

1914 “Tobit.” The Books of the Apocrypha: Their Origin, Teaching and Contents. New York: Ravel. Pp. 349–71.

1935 “Tobit.” An Introduction to the Books of the Apocrypha. London: SPCK. Pp. 161–71.

Sayce, Archibald H.

1908 Tobit and the Babylonian Apocryphal Writings. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. Pp. i–xiii, 1–26.

Simpson, David C.

1913a “The Book of Tobit .” APOT 1: 174–241. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Toy, Crawford

1906 “Tobit, Book of.” JE, eds. Isidore Singer et al.; 12 vols. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. 12: 171–72.

Wicks, Henry J.

1915 The Doctrine of God in the Jewish Apocalyptic and Apocryphal Literature. London: Hunter and Longhurst (Repr. by KTAV in 1971).

[1] Also one could check out my GoogleBooks Libraryfor some non full text Tobit works, clicking on the Tobit tag

[2] This might not be the actual work, but I have been unable to find the book with that Title or its other title Variorum Apocrypha

[3] According to Oesterley’s The Books of the Apocrypha… this book was republished in 1914, with more content.  But I have been unable to find this