Home » Hebrew Yay!

Category Archives: Hebrew Yay!

Advertisements

New Translation Set: 2 Kings 4.38-44: Part 1 2 Kings 4.38

2 Kings 4.38

 וֶאֱלִישָׁע שָׁב הַגִּלְגָּלָה וְהָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וּבְנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים יֹשְׁבִים לְפָנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לְנַעֲרוֹ שְׁפֹת הַסִּיר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּבַשֵּׁל נָזִיד לִבְנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים׃

Various Translations

ESV: And Elisha came again to Gilgal when there was a famine in the land.  And as the sons of the prophets were sitting before him, he said to his servant, “Set on the large pot, and boil stew for the sons of the prophets.”

NJPS:  Elisha returned to Gilgal. There was a famine in the land, and the disciples of the prophets were sitting before him. He said to his servant, “Set the large pot [on the fire] and cook a stew for the disciples of the prophets.”

NASB: When Elisha returned to Gilgal, there was a famine in the land. As the sons of the prophets were sitting before him, he said to his servant, “Put on the large pot and boil stew for the sons of the prophets.”

NAB: When Elisha returned to Gilgal, there was a famine in the land. Once, when the guild prophets were seated before him, he said to his servant, “Put the large pot on, and make some vegetable stew for the guild prophets.”

Mine:

Original:

And Elisha returned to Gigal and the famine was in the land.  And the sons of the prophets were sitting before him and he said to his servant, “set the great pot to boil a pottage for the sons of the Prophets.”

Revised:

After[1] Elisha returned to Gigal there[2] was a famine in the land.  And[3] the members[4] of the prophets were sitting before him when[5] he commanded[6] his servant, “Cook[7] the great pot to boil stew for the members of the prophets!”

Hebrew Notes

 וֶאֱלִישָׁע– ו – And – אֱלִישָׁע – Elisha – And Elisha

שָׁב – שׁוּב – to return – Q10 – he returned, came again

הַגִּלְגָּלָה – ה – The – גִּלְגָּלָה – Gilgal

וְהָרָעָב – ו – and –  ה – the – ראב – hungry, famine – and the famine

בָּאָרֶץ – ב – in – אָרֶצ – land – the land

Elisha returned to Gigal and the famine was in the land…

וּבְנֵי- ו – and – sons – and sons

הַנְּבִיאִים- ה – the – ִים – s – נָבִיא – prophet – the prophets

יֹשְׁבִים – Q55 – to dwell /sit – sitting (they)

לְפָנָיו – ל – to/for – פּנֶה – face, presence –  ו– his – before his presence

And the sons of the prophets were sitting before him…

וַיֹּאמֶר- And he said Qc20

לְנַעֲרוֹ- to his boy/servant

Q32  Set/set on  –  שְׁפֹת

הַסִּיר- the – pot

הַגְּדוֹלָה- the –גדוֹל – great – the great

וּבַשֵּׁל- the – P32 – to boil!

נָזִיד- boiled food, pottage?

לִבְנֵי– ל – to/for – sons – and sons

הַנְּבִיאִים- ה – the – ִים – s – נָבִיא – prophet – the prophets

And he said to his boy, “Set on the great pot to boil the pottage for the sons of the prophets!”


[1] After Elisha… I have decided to translate this ו as the beginning of a section of the narrative.  I’m not certain though about that.  First real time messing with aו  on nouns and not verbs.  I figured after fit however…

[2] “there,” following NAS, NAB, JPS, etc.

[3]

[4] This phrase, “sons of the prophets,” seem to be indicating one of two things.  Firstly perhaps its speaking of “members of a guild order, or class,” who are associated with Elisha’s story cycle. (AYBC) Or secondly that these sons may mean pupils or disciples of a group of prophets. (Langs’).  Refer also to the WBC volume on kings, in particular the “Sons of the prophets” article there.  Seeing more than sons, but uncertain whether they are pupils or full fledge prophets, I’ve tried to keep the phrase a little loose with the term “members.”

[5] “When,” Most translations seem to cut this ו out, I’ve chosen to keep it.  And translated it as when.

[6] What he says is in all imperative, so I’m assuming commands would work for this particular אמר

[7] It appears this Hebrew word, “set the big pot,” was used as an everyday sort of phrase, for “preparing a cooked dish.” AYBC Hence the use of “Cook,” here.

Advertisements

Having a Bathroom Break: 1 Kings 18.27

This is a translation which I worked on some time ago.  I completed the initial translation, but never got into doing the sort of revised translation as seen on my post concerning Othniel narrative, the Hebrew parsing is also a little ill formatted as well.  In any case, here is fun verse.

וַיְהִי בַצָּהֳרַיִם וַיְהַתֵּל בָּהֶם אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר קִרְאוּ בְקוֹל־גָּדוֹל כִּי־אֱלֹהִים הוּא כִּי שִׂיחַ וְכִי־שִׂיג לוֹ וְכִי־דֶרֶךְ לוֹ אוּלַי יָשֵׁן הוּא וְיִקָץ׃

ESV: And at noon Elijah mocked them, saying, “Cry aloud, for he is a god. Either he is musing, or he is relieving himself, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened.”

JPS: When noon came, Elijah mocked them, saying, “Shout louder! After all, he is a god.  But he may be in conversation, he may be detained, or he may be on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and will wake up.”

NASB: It came about at noon, that Elijah mocked them and said, “Call out with a loud voice, for he is a god; either he is occupied or gone aside, or is on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and needs to be awakened.”

NAB: When it was noon, Elijah taunted them: “Call louder, for he is a god and may be meditating, or may have retired, or may be on a journey. Perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened.”

Mine:

Original: “And it was in the midday and Elisha mocked at them, and he said, “You Call in a great voice, for god is he?  For musing is he, or withdrawn is he, or on a journey is he, unless sleeping is he and he will awake?

Revised: And it was in the midday when Elisha mocked them and he commanded, “Call in a great voice, for is a god.   Is he musing, or using the bathroom[1], or on a journey, perhaps he is sleeping and he should be woken up.”

Hebrew Notes:

וַיְהִי – – And he/it was

בַ – In the – צָהֳרַיִם – Midday, noon In the midday, only appears in the plural, from a route which means mount, i.e. when the sun “mounts its highest form” (According to BDB) – In the Midday

וַיְהַתֵּל  – הָתַל  – Q1MS Prefix- mock – And he mocked

בָּהֶם – in/at, them masculine

קִרְאוּ – קָרָא – 3MP IMPV- to call – You Call

בְקוֹל – בְ – in – קוֹל – voice, in a voice

גָּדוֹל – great

כִּי – for

אֱלֹהִים – God/god

הוּא – he

כִּי – for

שִׂיחַ – A complaint, musing

וְכִֽי – And for

שִׂיג – moving away/ withdrawing

לוֹ – to him

וְכִֽי – And for

דֶרֶךְ – journey

לוֹ – to him

אוּלַי – peradventure, unless

יָשֵׁן – sleeping

הוּא- he

וְיִקָץ- and he will awake Q3ms preferct


[1] Hardwood, 205 says “from שׂוּג to withdraw, 2 Sam. 1:22), euphemistic expression for: he is easing himself.” From “1 Kings”

פִּלֶגֶשׁ: Pîlegeš is that Concubine or not?

I had meant to post this blog up a lot earlier then I am now doing…  Although, I’ve actually been a little behind a few things, (as noted by the two sermon notes and one Seminary Paper suddenly appearing the other day.  To be honest I’m still have some things that I meaning to post up, i.e. more of the Maccabean Era History notes and One more paper O.o)  Any ways, here a simple study on פִּלֶגֶשׁ, not as complete as I had originally intended.   I might make an additional blog latter on, dealing with the masculine verb, as soon as I can find some more info. In any case, please enjoy

פִּלֶגֶשׁ:

This Hebrew word is often translated as concubine, but how accurately of a translation could this be? This word appears within two important scenarios within the Judges chronicles, namely when involved with Abimelech’s birth (Judges 8.31) and the Levite’s “concubine,” (Judges 19).  For the most part this post will be filled quotes from other writers.  I will make another comment at one point within the post, but in any case here you go.

Hebrew Books:

The TWOT writes of the word:

“A concubine was a true wife, though of secondary rank. This is indicated, for example, by the references to a concubine’s “husband” (Jud 19:3), the “father-in-law” (Jud 19:4), “son-in-law” (Jud 19:5). Thus, the concubine was not a kept mistress, and did not cohabit with a man unless married to him. The institution itself is an offshoot of polygamy[1].”

Another Dictionary writes:

“Another Hebrew dictionary writes: “a female in a formal, societally recognized, polygamous marriage relationship with a husband, usually with less rights than a wife, sometimes with a function of status or pleasure to the husband[2].”

Commentators on Pîlegeš

Soggin writes that the word

“… is in fact a legitimate wife, but of second rank.  We meet here with a figure typical of sovereigns, but rare in the private sphere[3].”

Another Commentator makes note:

“There are few references to this status in the biblical text and only two in Judges, though all share some common characteristics.  A pîlegeš is associated with a man who has sexual relations with the woman.  Often she is provided for in some way by the man, though there are cases where that is not clear….  In all of the cases except for the raped pîlegeš in Judges 19, the men with whom they are associated are married to other women who are named woman/wife.  Kings have many of them. …

There are two major issues concerning pîlegeš regularly highlighted in biblical stories: the status of their children… and what a pîlegeš of a ruler means politically (and often the two are related, especially when determining who inherits power). … Other references show them to be counted when numbering how large a king’s harem was but shows that they were not of the same status as women/wives since they are listed after women/wives ….  Beyond this there is little data[4].”

Then on Judges 8.31 she writes:

“None of the characteristics common to other biblical references to a concubine fit the definition of concubine in this text, raising the question of what the term really means[5].”

On the Levites’s Concubine (Judges 19) she writes:

“The term can also mean secondary wife in certain societies but, as will become apparent, there is no evidence here of the existence of a primary wife to whom this woman would be second.  Neither translation addresses what is implied in terms of marriage, rank, status, legal rights, or inheritance procedures.  Even if “concubine” accurately reflects the meaning of the Hebrew term pîlegeš the ramifications of a woman cohabiting with a man not her husband are different in the 1990s, the 1950s, and 1611 C.E.

Simply to apply the contemporary understanding of the term is problematic here because later the father of the pîlegeš is called a “father-in-law” (Judg 19:6).  The English definition of concubine implies that the decision for the arrangement is on the part of the woman,

One article in mentioning the Levite concubine that:

“The Levite’s concubine (Judg 19:1-30) appears to have had the status of a wife.  Her unfaithfulness (19:2) seems to have been her leaving him to return to her parents rather than any illicit sexual liaison[6].

Also Block writes:

“The etymology of pîlegeš (NIV, “concubine”) is obscure, but the word always identifies female persons, whose primary function appears to have been to gratify the sexual desires of the man/husband. In most contexts in the Old Testament the concubine was considered a legal if second-ranked wife[7].”

Bible Dictionary

“The precise nature of the relationship between a man and his pilegeš is not always clear from the biblical texts, however, and scholars have sometimes disagreed about the term’s meaning.  It is usually translated into English as “concubine” and understood to refer to a wife or sexual partner of secondary status.  Although certain men in the Hebrew Bible have both wives and concubines, no wives or additional concubines are referred to in Judges 19.  The levite is referred to as the “husband” of the woman (19:3; 20:4) and the “son-in-law” of the woman’s father (19:5), who in turn is referred to as the Levite’s “father-in-law” (19:4, 7, 9).  The uncertain nature of the differences between a wife and a concubine revales the complexities involved in understanding notions of kinship and marriage presupposed by biblical narratives[8].”

Notes

When looking at pîlegeš, it would perhaps be best to see the word with meaning not so defined as perhaps we would like it to be.  While a pîlegeš does certainly connote some of the same things which a concubine would, there seems to be another level to the word.   Most times placing a pîlegeš as a wife of second rank would seem to fit well, except for perhaps the case of the Judges 19.  Though that particular pîlegeš, honestly seems to set itself apart from the others.  Schneider in her commentary has suggested that perhaps leaving pîlegeš as a transliterated word rather than translated would perhaps be better.  Perhaps however that wouldn’t be the best of answers for how often would the normal reader really take the time to look up the word?  At the same time however should the word continue to be translated as “concubine,” or perhaps something else tried perhaps “lower wife?”

Paramours

Of course when it appears in the Masculine form, “Paramour,” at least what many consider to be a masculine form of the word.  This form of the word appears in Ezekiel 23.20, (which ironically is a rather uh… interesting verse in itself).  I have not yet quite found as much of a study on this particular form word as I would have liked.  However Greenberg writes of it:

after concubinage to them. So Rashi, Kara, taking the plural noun (lit. “after their concubines”) as an abstract, but this is hardly admissible. Others stretch “concubines”—elsewhere always feminine—to be masculine, “their servants” (T; Symmachus; Menaḥem bar Shimʿon: she was so wanton she harloted with the servants of the Egyptians, to her shame). No solution is satisfactory[9].”


[1]R. Laird Harris, Robert Laird Harris, Gleason Leonard Archer and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, electronic ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999, c1980), 724.

[2]James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: , 1997), DBLH 7108, #1.

[3] J. Alberto Soggin, The Old Testament Library: Judges, tr. John Bowden (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1981), 159.

[4] Tammi J. Schneider, Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative & Poetry: Judges, ed. David W. Cotter (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2000), 129.

[5] Ibid.

[6] M.J. Evans, “Women,” in Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books , ed. Bill T. Arnold and H.G.M. Williamson (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 2005), 991.

[7]Daniel Isaac Block, vol. 6, Judges, Ruth; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001), 303.

[8] s.v.  “Judges 19–20: Concubine (Secondary Wife) of a Levite, Ken Stone in Women in Scripture, ed.  (Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 2001), 249.

[9]Moshe Greenberg, Ezekiel 21-37: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary, Paging Continues That of Translator’s Ezekiel 1-20, Pub. 1983 as Anchor Bible, V. 22. (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008), 480.

Judges 3.11 Translation, the end of Othniel’s Narrative

Judges 3.11

וַתִּשְׁקֹט הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיָּמָת עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן־קְנַז׃

Various Translations

ESV: “So the land had rest forty years.  Then Othniel the son of Kenaz died.”

JPS: “and the land had peace for forty years.  When Othniel the Kenizzite died,”

NASB: “Then the land had rest forty years.  And Othniel the son of Kenaz died.”

NAB: “The land then was at rest for forty years, until Othniel, son of Kenaz, died.”

Mine:

Original: And the land was at rest for forty years and Othniel the son of Kenaz died.

Revised: After that[1] the land was calm[2] for forty years,[3] but[4] Othniel the Kenizzite died.

3.7-11[5]:

Now the children of Israel did what was wrong in the eyes of Yahweh.  For they ignored Yahweh their god but they served Baal and Asherah.  Therefore the fury of Yahweh blazed against Israel, so he sold them into the hand of Cushan the Double-Wicked, King of Aram-naharaim.  Thus the children of Israel served Cushan the Double-Wicked for eight years.  Then the children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.  Hence Yahweh raised up a deliverer for the children of Israel.  That same Othniel the Kenizzite, the younger kinsmen of Caleb rescued them.  When Yahweh’s Spirit came upon him then he delivered Israel since he went out to war and because Yahweh had given Cushan the Double-Wicked, King of Aram into his hand and his hand prevailed over Cushan the Double-Wicked.  After that the land was clam for forty years, but Othniel the Kenizzite died.

Hebrew Notes:

וַתִּשְׁקֹט – שָׁקַט – Qc21 – to be quiet, undisturbed, to rest – and she had rest

הָאָרֶץ – הָ –  ארָץ – the land

אַרְבָּעִים – forty

שָׁנָה –years

וַיָּמָת – מוּת – Qc20 – and he died

עָתְנִיאֵל – ʿā∙ṯenî∙ʾēl – Othniel – עֹתֶן + אֵל – lion of God

בֶּן – son of

קְנַז – qenǎz – Kenaz – could be “hunting”


[1] “After that,” ESV, NIV, NRSV, TNIV “So,” HCSB, NASB “Then,” NAB, NET ו cut out, JPS, ASV “and,” I chose to “After that,” seeing the ו as it usually is one used for a summary, i.e. after these events happened to sum it all up the land had rest, (van der Merwe p. 167 or section 21.2.3.i).

[2] “Calm” following Boling 80.

[3] It was tempting to put here, “The land was at rest for a generation,” for as Block, 155 notes “Forty probably is a round number, here presumably signifying the lifespan of an entire generation.”

[4] “But,” note that JPS Seems to see this particular ו as a beginning of a new narrative, “when,” which is rare, but possible. A possible translation could then be: “After Othniel had died 12 the children of Israel did…”  I saw this ו as one where we see two events, i.e. the land is at rest and Othniel’s death, and his death as being emphasized, the narrator in this way showing us the story is not yet ended.  (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2.1.iii).

[5] For Translations notes on previous verses please refer to these links: Judges 3.7, Judges 3.8, Judges 3.9, and Judges 3.10, As with the current verse comments are appreciated on the previous ones.

Judges 3.10 Translation

Ack, its been too long since I actually worked on this translation… a thousand pardons.  One Verse after this and I’ll have finished the story, and with this fine story will also finish off the Model Judge and view of the cycle.  Anyways as always comments or suggestions are welcome.

Judges 3.10

וַתְּהִ֨י עָלָ֥יו רֽוּחַ־יְהוָה֮ וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֣ט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיֵּצֵא֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ אֶת־כּוּשַׁ֥ן רִשְׁעָתַ֖יִם מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם וַתָּ֣עָז יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל כּוּשַׁ֥ן רִשְׁעָתָֽיִם׃

Various Translations:

ESV: “The Spirit of the Lord was upon him, and he judged Israel. He went out to war, and the Lord gave Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand. And his hand prevailed over Cushan-rishathaim.”

JPS: “The Spirit of the Lord descended upon him and he became Israel’s chieftain.  He went out to war, and the Lord delivered King Cushan-rishathaim, ofAram into his hands.  He prevailed over Cushan-rishathaim.”

NASB: “The Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he judged Israel. When he went out to war, the Lord gave Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand, so that he prevailed over Cushan-rishathaim.”

NAB: “The spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he judged Israel. When he went out to war, the Lord delivered Cushan-risha-thaim, king of Aram, into his power, so that he made him subject.”

Mine:

Original: And the spirit of Yahweh came upon him and he judged Israel and he came out to battle and Yahweh gave into his hand Cushan Rishathaim King of Aram and the strength of his hand was upon Cushan Rishathaim.

Revised:

When[1] Yahweh’s Spirit came upon him[2] then[3] he delivered[4] Israel since[5] he went out to war[6], and because[7] Yahweh had given Cushan the Double Wicked, King of Aram into his hand and[8] his hand prevailed[9] over Cushan the Double-Wicked.

3.7-10:

Now the children of Israel did what was wrong in the eyes of Yahweh.  For they ignored Yahweh their god but they served Baal and Asherah.  Therefore the fury of Yahweh blazed against Israel, so he sold them into the hand of Cushan the Double-Wicked, King of Aram-naharaim.  Thus the children of Israel served Cushan the Double-Wicked for eight years.  Then the children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.  Hence Yahweh raised up a deliverer for the children of Israel.  That same Othniel the Kenizzite, the younger kinsmen of Caleb rescued them.  When Yahweh’s Spirit came upon him then he delivered Israel since he went out to war and because Yahweh had given Cushan the Double-Wicked, King of Aram into his hand and his hand prevailed over Cushan the Double-Wicked.

Hebrew Notes:

וַתְהִי  – הָיָה – Qc21 – came to pass, become, fell out – and she became

עָלָיו – עַל – upon – יו – him – upon him

רוּח – Spirit, Wind

יְהוָה – YHWH – Yahweh, or the Lord

וַיִּשְׁפֹּט – שָׁפַט – Qc20 – to judge – and he judged

אֵת – DDO

יִשְׂרָאֵל – Yiśrā’ēl – Israel

וַיֵּצֵא – יָצָא – Qc20 – to go, come out – and he came out

לַמִּלְחָמָה – ל – to/for – מִלְחָמָה – battle, war – לָחַם – to fight, do battle – to battle

וַיִּתֵּן – נַתַן – Qc20  – to give – And he gave

יְהוָה – YHWH – Yahweh, or the Lord

בְּיָדוֹ – ב – into – יָד  – hand – וֹ- his – into his hand

אֵת – DDO

כּוּשַׁן – kû∙šǎn – Cushan

רִשְׁעָתַיִם – riš∙ʿā∙ṯǎ∙yim – Rishathaim – רִשְׁעָה – wickedness – רָשָׁע – wicked, criminal  – double wickedness

מֶלֶךְ – king of

אֲרַם – ’ărām – Aram

וַתָּעָז – עָזַז – Qc21 – strength – and she was strong

יָדוֹ – יָד – hand וֹ – his – his hand.

עַל – upon

כּוּשַׁן – kû∙šǎn – Cushan

רִשְׁעָתַיִם – riš∙ʿā∙ṯǎ∙yim – Rishathaim – רִשְׁעָה – wickedness – רָשָׁע – wicked, criminal  – double wickedness


[1] “When” Following the God’s Word translation, most Modern Translations leave it out, while at least two older ones, ASV, KJV keep it in as “And.”

[2] “Yahweh’s Spirit,” instead of the Spirit of the Lord, cf Boling 81 who writes “The expression should elicit neither the sense of “Holy Spirit” in later Christian formulations, nor the overtones of amorphous “wind,” which is the etymological origin of heb. a” Also as Block, 155 Notes “In the Book of Judges when the rûaḥ yhwh, “Spirit of the Lord,” comes upon individuals, it signals the arresting presence and power of God, often of individuals who are unqualified for or indisposed to service for him.”

[3] “Then,” most translations leave the ו as “And,” while the NIV, TNIV have “So,” andNJB leaves it out.  I’ve chosen then although the NIV’s So would have worked as well.  Seeing the ו as next step in the logical sequence, Yahweh’s Spirit  came to Othniel so he did his job.  (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2 1.ii)

[4] The Hebrew word here, “שָׁפַט” meaning is somewhat more complicated, see any number of commentaries on its meanings such as Soggin 1-4, Boling 5-9, Matthews 53-4 and others.  I have chosen delivered instead of Judged, since Othniel’s role is not one concerned with the law, but instead military matters.

[5] “Since,” ESV, NJPS, NRSV, HCSB cuts the ו out, NET, NAB, NASB has “when,” NIV, TNIV, NJB, ASV “And”  I saw this ו as one of closer definition, Othniel saves Israel, okay, but how did he do so?  Because, or since he went to war.  (van der Merwe p. 167 or section 21.3.iii)

[6] I choose to follow the phrasing of Most modern translating, notably the four above.

[7] “And because,” ESV,HCSB, NRSV, NJPS, ASV, KJV “And” while NAB, NIV, NASB, NJB, TNIV cuts it out, and then at least the NET  has “When”  I’ve chosen “and because,”  I chose to translate this ו the same as the previous one, note endnote 5.  Since Othniel not only delivered Israel because he went to war, but also because of Yahweh.  I’ll admit I’m uncertain about this one.

[8] “And” following such translations as ESV, NJB, NRSV, ASV, KJV have “And,” while HCSB, NAB, NASB “So”,  and then the NET, NIV, NJPS, TNIV all cuts out the ו.  Seeing this ו as nothing more than logical sequence.

[9] Following Matthews 55, “And his hand prevailed…” note also Boiling 80, translates this as “his hand clamped down on…” The use of hand, יָד is very prevalent in this whole narrative, from Yahweh selling his people into Cushan’s hand to giving him into Othniel’s hand.  I felt though not as readable that the second hand of this verse shouldn’t be dropped out.

Judged 3.9 Translation… at last

Judges 3.9

 וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה מוֹשִׁיעַ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם אֵת עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן־קְנַז אֲחִי כָלֵב הַקָּטֹן מִמֶּנּוּ׃

Various Translations

ESV: “But when the people of Israel cried out to the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer for the people of Israel, who saved them, Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother.”

JPS: “The Israelites cried out to the Lord, and the Lord raised a champion for the Israelites to deliver them: Othniel the Kenizzite, a younger kinsman of Caleb.”

NASB: “When the sons of Israel cried to the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer for the sons of Israel to deliver them, Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother.”

NAB: “But when the Israelites cried out to the LORD, he raised up for them a savior, Othniel, son of Caleb’s younger brother Kenaz, who rescued them.”

Mine:

Original: “And the sons of Israel cried out to Yahweh and Yahweh caused a deliverer to be raised for the sons of Israel and Othniel son of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb younger than him delivered them.”

Revised: “Then[1] the children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.  Hence[2] Yahweh raised up a deliverer for the children of Israel.  That[3] same[4] Othniel the Kenizzite,[5] the younger kinsmen[6] of Caleb rescued them.”

3.7-9:

Now the children of Israel did what was wrong in the eyes of Yahweh.  For they ignored Yahweh their god but they served Baal and Asherah.  Therefore the fury of Yahweh blazed against Israel, so he sold them into the hand of Cushan the Double Wicked, King of Aram-naharaim.  Thus the children of Israel served Cushan the Double Wicked for eight years.  Then the children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.  Hence Yahweh raised up a deliverer for the children of Israel.  That same Othniel the Kenizzite, the younger kinsmen of Caleb rescued them.

Hebrew Notes:

 וַיִּזְעֲקוּ – Qc15 – זָעַק – cry, cry out, call – and they cried out

בְנֵי־ – בֵּן – sons of

יִשְׂרָאֵל – Yiśrā’ēl – Israel

אֶל־ – to/at

יְהוָה – YHWH – Yahweh, or the Lord

וַיָּקֶם – Hc10 – arise, stand, rise – and he caused x to be raised

יְהוָה – YHWH – Yahweh, or the Lord

מוֹשִׁיעַ – Hc10s0 – יָשַׁע – hif’il to deliver – one to deliver(?); deliverer

לִבְנֵי – לְ – to/for – בֵּן – sons – for sons

יִשְׂרָאֵל – Yiśrā’ēl – Israel

וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם – Hc10s5 – יָשַׁע – and he delivered them

אֵת – DDO

עָתְנִיאֵל – ʿā∙ṯenî∙ʾēl – Othniel – עֹתֶן + אֵל – lion of God

בֶּן־ – son of

קְנַז – qenǎz – Kenaz – could be “hunting”

אֲחִי – אָח – brother of

כָלֵב – kā∙lēḇ – Caleb – “perhaps ‘dog,’ i.e. כֶּלֶב”

הַקָּטֹן – הַ ּ – קָטָן – small, young, unimportant – the young(er)

מִמֶּנּוּ׃ – than him


Revised Translation Notes:

[1] Then ESV, NAB, NLT, TNIV, most modern “But When,” NASB, NET “When,” JPS cuts it out as does the HCSB NJB “The Israelites then” I have chosen Then because I see in this a logical sequence brought about because of consequence.  That is because the Yahweh punished his they then chose to turn toward him.  After serving eight years then the Israelites cried.  (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2 1. (ii) b.)

[2] Hence ESV, NAB, NASB, NET, etc. most modern translation cut it out, JPS, NJB “and” HCSB “So”  Again I see this as a consequence (in a good sense ^_^) because they turned toward God at last he then brought about their deliverance, they cried to Yahweh, hence or because of this he gave them Othniel.  (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2 1. (ii) b.)

[3] That Note many translations will placed “deliver them” before “Othniel son of…” therefore ESV, NRSV, NJB “Who saved (or rescued, delivered) them,” or JPS, NASB “to deliver them,” NET has “who rescued them” and puts a “His name was…” NLT is similar “to save them” with “his name was…” NAB, NIV has “Othniel…” then “Who saved them” I assume this ו as one of closer definition.  That is Yahweh gave them a deliverer, who did his job and who was Othniel.  I used “That same Othniel,” partly because it seem too fit well enough in that and also because of its connection with verses 1.12-15 see note 4.  (van der Merwe p. 167 or section 21.2 3. (ii))

[4] Same, I have used the pharse “that same” to partly relate that Othniel is supposed to be recognized as “oh hey that guy from Joshua something and the beginning of Judges…”  I’ll admit I may be putting too much inference with this phrase, but anyways Block p. 154 notes “As the first in the series of rulers raised up by God, however, Othniel plays a paradigmatic role. He is a Judean hero (the last one in the book) of noble, if alien, stock (the Caleb connection), one already distinguished for his courage and prowess (1:11–15).” Schneider p. 39 “Othniel is the perfect candidate for the first judge because he was introduced earlier and is a known character, has an established military record (Judg 1:13), is related to Caleb, one of the two people from the desert generation who were allowed to enter the land, is married to an Israelite and is a member of the tribe of Judah, which has been designated as leader.”

[5] Following JPS; Note Block on Judges “In [1.13] Othniel is referred to as “the son of Kenaz.” Cf. Num 32:12 and Josh 14:6, 14, which identify Caleb as “the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite.” According to Gen 36:11, 15, 42, Kenaz was an Edomite chieftain, a descendant of Esau. Gen 15:19 includes the Kenizzites among the peoples occupying a portion of the land promised to Abraham, presumably in the Negev adjacent to Edom proper.” Or Boiling p. 56 “ben Qenaz. EVV “Kenizzite,” a member of a southern clan established at an early period in southern Judah and the northern Negeb.”

[6] Again Following JPS; Note: Schneider pp. 10-11 “Othniel’s specific relationship with Caleb is not entirely certain. …  Here he is named the younger “brother.” The term “brother” can be used in many senses such as “brotherhood” especially in Judges, and it is not clear that in this instance the inference is specially to the son of either of his parents” or Boiling 56 ““brother.” That is, military confederate, as in well-known Mari usage of au. In the course of traditionary differentiation, Othniel was regarded as either Caleb’s brother (LXXA) or nephew (LXXB). Intricate Calebite genealogies in 1 Chron 2 and 4 imply complex tribal histories.”

Next Verse: Judges 3.8 translation

 וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּמְכְּרֵם בְּיַד כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם מֶלֶךְ אֲרַם נַהֲרָיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם שְׁמֹנֶה שָׁנִים׃

Judges 3.8

Various Translations:

ESV: “Therefore the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia. And the people of Israel served Cushan-rishathaim eight years.”

JPS: “The Lord became incensed at Israel and surrendered them to King Cushan- rishathaim of Aram-naharaim; and the Israelites were subject to Cushan- rishathaim for eight years.”

NASB: “Then the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, so that He sold them into the hands of Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia; and the sons of Israel served Cushan-rishathaim eight years.”

NAB: “the anger of the LORD flared up against them, and he allowed them to fall into the power of Cushan-rishathaim, king of Aram Naharaim, whom they served for eight years.”

Mine:

Original: “And Yahweh was hot of nose at Israel and he sold them into the hand of Cushan Rishathaim King of Aram Naharaim and sons of Israel served Cushan Rishathaim eight years

Revised: “Therefore[1] the fury of Yahweh blazed[2] against Israel, so[3] he sold them into the hand of Cushan the Double Wicked,[4] King of Aram-naharaim.[5] Thus[6] the children of Israel served Cushan the Double Wicked for eight years.”

3.7-8:

Now the children of Israel did what was wrong in the eyes of Yahweh.  For they ignored Yahweh their god but they served Baal and Asherah[7].  Therefore the fury of Yahweh blazed against Israel, so he sold them into the hand of Cushan the Double Wicked, King of Aram-naharaim.  Thus the children of Israel served Cushan the Double Wicked for eight years.

Hebrew Notes:

 וַיִּחַר־ – Qc10 – חָרָה – burn, kindled, of anger, and he was hot of

אַף – nose, face

יְהוָה – YHWH – Yahweh, or the Lord

בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל – ב – in/at – Yiśrā’ēl – Israel – at Israel

וַיִּמְכְּרֵם – Qc10s5 – מכר – to sell – and he sold them

בְּיַד – ב – in/into – יָד – hand – into hand of

כּוּשַׁן – kû∙šǎn – Cushan

רִשְׁעָתַיִם – riš∙ʿā∙ṯǎ∙yim – Rishathaim – רִשְׁעָה – wickedness – רָשָׁע – wicked, criminal  – double wickedness

מֶלֶךְ – king of

אֲרַם – ’ărām – Aram

נַהֲרָיִם – nǎ∙hǎrǎ∙yim – Naharaim

וַיַּעַבְדוּ – Qc15 – עָבַד – work, serve, worship – and they served

כּוּשַׁן – kû∙šǎn – Cushan

רִשְׁעָתַיִם – riš∙ʿā∙ṯǎ∙yim – Rishathaim – רִשְׁעָה – wickedness – רָשָׁע – wicked, criminal  – double wickedness

שְׁמֹנֶה – eight

שָׁנִים׃ – שׁנה – year – years


Revised Translation Notes:

[1] Therefore cf. ESV: Hey another ו here it is cut off by some (cf. JPS, NAB, TNIV, etc), while others have “Therefore” (cf. ESV, NRSV) or “Then” (cf. NASB, NJB, NLT).  I have chosen “therefore” to reflect the actions of 3.7 brought about this consequence of 3.8, they ignored Yahweh brining out Judgment.  (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2 1 ii b)

[2] Fury Blazed: Literally “Hot of Nose, Hot Nosed, etc.” TWOT 736: “This word is related to a rare Aramaic root meaning “to cause fire to burn,” and to an Arabic root meaning “burning sensation,” in the throat, etc. The Hebrew verb is always used in reference to anger. The meaning of the root differs from such words for “anger” as ˒ānap, ˓am, and ap, in that it emphasizes the “kindling” of anger, like the kindling of a fire, or the heat of the anger, once started.” Also TWOT 133a “The main use of ˒ap is to refer to the anger of men and of God. This anger is expressed in the appearance of the nostrils. ˒ap gives specific emphasis to the emotional aspect of anger and wrath, whereas its synonyms and terms related to them give particular expression to other aspects.” I have chosen to put the Blazed to reflect its connection to fire and fury since I feel its shows more emotion then angry. NJB has a similar translation “Yahweh’s anger blazed out against Israel,” or TNIV “The anger of the Lord burned against Israel,” Boiling has “ Yahweh’s wrath blazed against Israel.”  Often kindled is used, (cf. ESV, NASB, NRSV,etc.)

[3] Again another ו often as “and” (cf. ESV, JPS, NAB, etc.) NASB and TNIV have “so,” NJB cuts it out.  I have chosen “So,” again as seeing it as a consequence, they’ve wronged Yahweh so he is punishing them. (van der Merwe p. 166 or section 21.2 1 ii b)

[4] The Double Wicked: I have chosen to make this a title to reveal one suggestion of the meaning of the Hebrew, but note: Boiling p. 80 “Cushan-rishathaim. The Masoretic scholars associated the second element of the name with ʿ “wicked,” and pointed the ending so that it meant “two,” hence “Cushan Double-Wickedness” or the like. That the early narrator was also interested in the name is suggested by the envelope construction in which the name occurs four times: twice in vs. 8, twice in vs. 10. I owe this recognition to Susan Seuling.” Or Block p. 153 “The man’s name is even more problematic than his title. Formally it looks like “Cushan of Double Wickedness,” in which case it probably functions as a mocking and parodic pseudonym. … there is no consensus on who Cushan-Rishathaim might be. A variety of identifications have been proposed… [but]… We are forced to concede that it is impossible to link Cushan-Rishathaim with any known historical figure…”

[5] Schneider p. 38 “Aram-naharaim is often considered to be Mesopotamia, but more accurately refers to the area of upper Mesopotamia around the great bend of the Euphrates in northern Syria.”

[6] Final ו most translations have “and” (cf. ESV, JPS, NASB, etc.) NAB seems to cut it off, unless “whom” equals it, similar to TNIV’s “to whom,” NET Bible cuts it straight out.  I have chosen “Thus,” to reflect a sequential action, i.e. God was angry, he sold them to Cushan so now they serve Cushan.  (van der Merwe p. 165 or section 21.2 1 ii a)  I almost wonder if it could also be seen as contrast.  i.e “Instead the children served Cushan…” Instead of seaving Baal they are now serving Cushan, instead of ignoring Yahweh they are serving Cushan (for 3.9 points to them crying to him), or even instead of serving Yahweh they are serving Cushan (for their wrong deeds).

[7] I have changed two things Firstly I reworded “the wrong thing,” based on suggestions and I have chosen to go back to Asherah instead of Astarte based on suggestions and after doing some more reading since Baal’s associate seems to be rather confusing.  Note: the IVP Articles Canaan, Canaanites and  noting such things as that “There are fertility goddesses paired with gods, but who is paired with whom varies in different sources. … In Ugarit Baal s paired with Anath, called “virgin.” … However, during Ahab’s time Baal is associated with Asher ah (1 Kings 18) and in other biblical passages with Astarte…” p. 127 Also the IVP Article Canaanite Gods and Religion “In the Hebrew Bible Baal tends to be associated nota with Anat, but with Athirat/Asherah or with another goddess, Ashtoreth/Astarte.” p. 137