The High Priests of the Persian Era – From Jeshua to Jaddua- Wait Who?

Today we’ll look at who were, or who it seems were the High Priest of the Persian Period. We’ll move past the Biblical record and see a little of what Josephus and others have to say.

Persian Period 

Jeshua (Joshua)

High Priest after the return from the exile and the son of Jehozadak who had gone into the exile (1 Chr 6.14-15). Jeshua was related to Ezra the Scribe (Ezra 7.1). It appears that he was born in the Exile and raised in Babylon before returning with the Exiles. He was one of the leaders of the early returning exiles. He is connected with rebuilding the temple (Ezra 5.2; Sirach 49.12)

Jeshua received an oracle from both Haggai and Zechariah , Haggai who encouraged him to work at rebuilding ht temple (Hag. 1.12, 14) and Zechariah who made it clear that Joshua was one of two ordained leaders (Zech 6.11), the other being Zerubbabel. Likely the same person as the Jeshua of Ezra 10.18, which shows that some of his descendants had married foreign women.

It also seems likely that his tenure as High Priest lasted a long time, perhaps into beginning of the fifth century as VanderKam notes.

Joiakim (Joachim)

The high priest when Xerxes ruled and the son of Jeshua who served as High Priest in the 5th century. Easily lasting until 460-450 BC. Little is known of Joiakim. Josephus notes that he died during the feast of Tabernacles, his son, Eliashib served during Nehemiah’s time (Neh 12.10, 12, 16). (Josephus Ant 11.5.5)

It is very likely the Joakim mentioned in Judith was a reference to this High Priest.


High Priest certainly by the time of 445, and who may have be in office until around 433 BC. This was the High Priest during ht time of Nehemiah’s governorship, who helped in Nehemiah’s Wall rebuilding efforts (Neh 3.1). The house of Eliashib indicates the wealth and high social standing that he possessed and indicated the increasing importance of the High Priest (Neh 3.20-21).

He may be the same Eliashib of Nehemiah 13, but it seems odd that he would help in the refortifaction of the walls despite Sanballet, Tobiah, and others protest (Neh 4.1-3) and yet would show favoritism toward Tobiah (Neh. 13.4-5).  However, even though it seems likely the two are different, as High Priest he would have likely have known of Tobiah’s presence and we see that his grandson would intermarry into the family of Tobiah (Neh 13.28) so perhaps  the two families were closer than realize.

Joiada (Jehoiada)

The High Priest around 433 BC to 410 BC. Little is known of Joiada outside of his mention in genealogies (Neh 12.10-11, 22; 13.28) and that his son married the daughter of Sanballat the Horonite (13.28).


The Likely High Priest from around 410 BC to at least 370 BC (or later), assuming that Johanan attained the High Priesthood at an early age. He followed Joiada, his father (it seems likely that Jonathan is a scribal error in Neh. 12.11). Johanan was High Priest around the time of Darius’ II reign (ca. 410), based on his name appearing in the Elephantine papyri and Nehemiah 12.22.

According to Josephus, Johanan murdered his brother Jeshua inside the temple  (Antiquities 11.7.1).

Jeshua appears to have been favored by the Governor Bagohi to be made the next High Priest, but his

Note that some propose this to be another High Priest, in the reign of Artaxerxes III and not Artaxerxes II, but I find it more likely that Josephus was referring to the Biblical Johanan and the governor Bagohi.


He was one of the Post-exilic High Priest, mentioned in Nehemiah (12.11, 22), likely his father was not Jonathan, but Johanan (an easy error to make when copying the text). His reign appears to have been a long one, 370 to 333 BC and it appears he was quite aged when Alexander defeated Darius III. Alexander evidently saw Jaddua has the Leader of Judah for he wrote to him according to Josephus (Ant. 11.317).

Josephus also relates another interesting story, which showed that intermarriage continued to be a problem for the Jewish Elite, for Jaddua’s brother Manasseh, married the daughter of Sanballet, Nikaso. (Ant. 11.7.1-8.7).

Josephus also mentions that he “shared” the office with Manasseh early during the reign of Alexander the great (Ant. 11.8.2), but it is uncertain what Josephus meant by this. It could simply mean that Manasseh was Jaddua’s assistant, his sāgān.

The people requested that Manasseh divorce his wife or lose his position, but Manasseh was offered a temple in Samaria by Sanballat and a High Priesthood if he did not divorce his daughter, Manasseh agreed and a number of priests and levites left with him according to Josephus.

His name being mentioned in Ezra-Nehemiah is a clue to the text final form, or may simply be the fact that his name was added into the text late. He is the last High Priest mentioned within the Protestant Old Testament.

Finally it s should be noted that according to Josephus, Jaddua received Alexander the Great (Ant. 11.8.4-6). The tale tells of the meeting of Jaddua and Alexander, after the former had refused to change his support from Darius III to Alexander, which did not please the conqueror. Alexander upon meeting with Jaddua explains seeing him in a dream and Jaddua showing Alexander the work of Daniel and proclaiming the prophet had foretold his coming.

“And, when the book of Daniel was shown to him, in which he had declared that one of the Greeks would destroy the empire of the Persians, he believed himself to be the one indicated; and in his joy he dismissed the multitude for the time being, but on the following day he summoned them again and told them to ask for any gifts which they might desire.” Josephus Antiquities 11.8.5

Alexander is well pleased by all of this and instead of destroying the Jews, promises them many benefits and marches onward to Egypt.

The tale is likely fictitious, and has no mention in any Greek Histories, but helps to show the likely importance of the High Priest in the Persian and Hellenistic era. That already by the time of Jaddua (and likely prior) the High Priest has morphed from just a spiritual leader to a political one as well.

So Far

  • Jeshua – High Priest who helped rebuild Temple
  • Joiakim – Little is known of him.
  • Eliashib – High Priest who helped rebuild Jerusalem’s walls
  • Joiada (Jehoiada) – Little is known to him, his son (Jeshua?) married Sanballet’s daughter
  • Johanan – Long tenure, according to Josephus, he killed brother in temple.
  • Jaddua – Last High Priest mentioned in Old Testament, brother Manasseh married Sanballet’s daughter, maybe met with Alexander the Great

I’m going to wait until a later post (likely the last posting on this) to do another propose listing of the High Priests, so refer to earlier posts for a listing from Eli to Jeshua.


High Priest of Israel Part Three: From Zadok to Jehozadok

Listing So Far

Wilderness Period

  • Aaron – The First High Priest, of the tribe of Levi of course, High Priest during the Wilderness Journey, died shortly before its ends.
  • Eleazar – Aaron’s eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu were killed for using strange fire, thus the High Priesthood came to him. Aaron’s fourth son is Ithamar. Eleazar is High Priest during the Joshua Conquest, dies after Joshua (Josh. 24.33).

Judges Period

  • Phinehas – Noted for his loyalty and zeal during the Peor Incident (Numbers 31), served at Bethel (Judges 20.28) during the time of the war with Benjamin.
  • Abishua – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.5
  • Bukki – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4. 2 Esdras 1.2 he is called Borith and 1 Esdras 8.2 Boccas. Note that Samartians split the High Priesthood here, Shesha is said to have succeeded instead, Shesha being a different son of Abishua.
  • Uzzi – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4
  • Note there may be a gap here or Zerhiah and Meraioth may belong here, of them we know nothing save their names in genealogical listing. (See Lightfoot Temple Service IV Sec. 1)
  • Eli – No longer from the descendents of Eleazar, but instead from Aaron’s fourth son, Ithamar, High Priest for forty years during the waning years of the Judges who served at Shiloh. His sons misdeeds caused the High Priesthood to be removed from Ithamar in time to the specific descendants of Eleazar the Zadokites.
  • Phinehas – Not High Priest, but likely preformed duties as Eli grew old and his eyes dimmed

Early Kingdom Period

  • Ahitub – Brother of Ichabod, only mentioned in connection to his sons Ahijah and Ahimelech
  • Ahijah – or Ahiah, ministered at Shiloh, wore ephod early in Saul’s reign, who consults the ephod on whether Saul would win a battle or not
  • Ahimelech – Brother of Ahijah, ministered at Nob, unwittingly helped David against Saul, in revenge, Saul would kill Ahimelech with 84 other priests at Nob
  • Abiathar and Zadok – Both were High Priests during the reign of David and early reign of Solomon, Abiathar is eventually dispose for supporting Adonijah, Zadok becomes sole High Priest and his line is seen the legitimate priestly line.
  • Ahimelech (II) – Son of Abiathar, but never high priest, but like Phinehas may have done some High Priestly duties as Abiathar was quite old during Solomon’s time.
  • Ahimaaz and Azariah (I) – See Below

High Priests of the First Temple Period


The son of Zadok, Is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6.9 and nowhere else, it seems likely, however, that he was not ever High Priest, noting Zadok’s presence in the early part of Solomon’s reign and Azariah’s presence at the temple building. Zadok did live to a long age and so perhaps Ahimaaz died before having a chance at becoming High Priest or like others, perhaps he preformed High Priestly duties though never officially one.

Azariah (I)

1 Kings 4.2 – Azariah, is the son rather than grandson of Zadok.

Mentioned in the Chronicle’s genealogy, 6.9, as son of Ahimaaz, note, however that many scholars feel that the mention in verse 10 of the priest serving in the temple should moved down to verse 9, and thus 9 should read:

Ahimaaz was the father of Azariah (it was he who served a priest in the house which Solomon Built in Jerusalem).” Azariah was the father of Johanan

1 Kings 4.2 also mentions Azariah called the son of Zadok (most likely in a generic sense), and so should be read as descendent or grandson of Zadok. From this we gather that not only was he in charge of the temple, but helped to supervised the priest in an official way.

At this point Chronciles divegers from the listing in Josephus’ and  ‘Olam Zuta.


Nothing is really known of him, except for his appearance in the Genealogy, 1 Chr 6.1-15, he was a son (or descendent) of Azariah I, High Priest during Solomon’s time. If son, he was likely the High Priest during Rehobaom’s reign, but if he is a descendent that would place him as being the father of Azariah (II)

This appears to be a gap between Johanah and Amariah, certainly,  Johanah was not High Priest from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat, but we have no other biblical data from the genealogies or mentions of High Priest in the reign of Rehoboam, Abijah, or Asa.

Whoever was the High Priest during Abijah’s reign which was only three years was likely either the priest during a part Rehoboam’s rule or Asa’s.

Amariah (I)

The High Priest during Jehoshaphat’s reign was Amariah (2 Chr 19.11), during this time he was placed in charge over ecclesiastical and religious matters. 19.11, does not mention his father, and so Amariah may be the same as seen in Chronicles Genealogies, or one of the High Priest not listed in it.


Jehoiada is a prominent High Priest connected with the story of Joash and Athaliah (see in 2  Kings 11 and 2 Chronicles 22) His wife, Jehosheba saved Joash from death when Athaliah tried to kill all the Davidic heirs and he raised Joash in the temple until it was the right time to bring about a coup to reinstate Joash. Jehoiada lived to an advance of 130 and in his death was buried among the kings of Judah because of his service to the crown. He may be referenced to in Jeremiah 29.26, but this is uncertain. Due to his long life it is not inconceivable that he was High Priest after Amariah (I)

Who was between Jehoiada in the latter end of Joash’s reign and the Azariah in Uzziah’s reign?

Could Zechariah, the descendent of Jehoiada have been a High Priest?

Josephus at this point may point to Pediah as being Jehoiada’s son. (If one equates Axioram an obviously corrupted name with Jehoiada and Phideas with Seder Olam’s Pediah). It, furthermore seems unlikely that Zechariah was Jehoiada’s son whose advange age is noted in the text. Thus it would seem likely, that Zechariah’s father, perhaps the Pediah mentioned was High Priest.

Is there another gap here in the biblical record? Or did Pediah finish out Joash’s reign and was the same High Priest during Amaziah’s?

Azariah (II)

Azariah (II) is likely the same as Azariah son (as in descendent) of Johanan of 1 Chr 6.10. This is the Azariah who appears during King Uzziah’s reign. Specifically, we’re told that Uzziah tried to enter the temple to burn incense and Azariah opposed his actions (2 Chr. 26.17, 20).

Was he High Priest during Jotham’s rein as well, or at least a part of it? Was it Uriah? Josephus and Seder Olam both mention a Joel and Jotham prior to Uriah. With Joel at times being equated with Azariah (II), which would mean a High Priest Jotham reigned prior to Uriah. But is unmentioned for some reason.


Kings, Chronicles, and Isaiah, point to Uriah (Urijah) as the High Priest during  the reign of King Ahaz. Ahaz we’re told ordered Uriah to build an Assyrian styled altar and to offer sacrifices to that instead of Solomon’s altar (2 Kings 16.10-16). In Isaiah, Uriah is one of the persons whom Isaiah called to witness the authenticity of his oracles (Isaiah 8.2), despite Uriah’s missteps, he was still held in esteem by the people. It is for participation in false worship that some wonder if he was omitted from the list.

Azariah (III)

The Chief priest during the reign of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31.10, 13), who speaks favorably about the donations that the people have given. He may also be the same Azariah who the father of Joel, a Levite who helped in cleaning the temple (2 Chr. 29.12)


At this point the Chronicle genealogies seem to have been corrupted. We now have three (Chronicles/Ezra) or four names (Nehemiah) which fit with the reign of Manasseh and Amon, Josiah’s high priest clearly being Hilkiah. While Manasseh reigned for around 50 years, Amon’s reign was only two years.

Moreover, it seems slightly suspicious that Amariah, Ahitub, Zadok would appear in the list together again, in the same order as earlier in the list.

Should Josephus and Seder Olam be considered at this point?

Instead of four names, Seder Olam has two, Hoshaiah (Manasseh) and Shallum (Amon). Josephus after Urijah has three names, Nerias (Was this Azariah III?), then Odaias and Saloum, that is Shallum.

Going back to these three names of Amariah, Ahitub, Zadok, copyist error may not be the only answer, it could be that the chronicler was not so much saying that these were the men descended from Azariah (III), but perhaps noted that with Shallum, the High Priesthood was returned to the Zadokite line. Perhaps during the years Manasseh’s apostasy he had corrupted the High priesthood?

Amariah (II)

Noted in 1 Chronicles 6 and Ezra genealogies, nothing else is known, perhaps a literary device speaking of Shallum’s/Hilkiah’s ancestry.

Ahitub (II)

Noted in 1 Chronicles 6 and Ezra genealogies, nothing else is known, perhaps a literary device speaking of Shallum’s/Hilkiah’s ancestry.


Noted in 1 Chronicles 9.11 and Nehemiah 11.11 contra 1 Chronicles 6.12 and Ezra  7.2 if the names here are correct. Note that Nehemiah 12.15 speaks of this as a priestly house during the days of Joiakim. The Meraioth reference seems odd.

Zadok (II)

Noted in 1 Chronicles 6 and Ezra genealogies, nothing else is known, perhaps a literary device speaking of Shallum’s/Hilkiah’s ancestry.


Noted in 1 Chronicles 6 and Ezra, outside of his famous son nothing is known. Likely he is to be equated with Meshullam in Nehemiah 11.11 and 1 Chronicles 9.11


High Priest under Josiah, Hilkiah found the book of the law (2 Kings 22.8) and he helped in the religious revival of Josiah (2 Kings 23.4), and helped to celebrate Passover (2 Chr. 35.8). Hilkiah really stands as one of the best of the Old Testament high priests.

Azariah (IV)

Noted in 1 Chronicles 6.13 and Ezra 7.1, as well as in 1 Esdras 8.1; 2 Esdras 1.1, but outside of this nothing is known.


High Priest in Jerusalem during the Babylonian Conquest, he is one of the officials executed at Riblah (2 Kings 25.17-21; Jer. 52.24-27). Outside of his death and position nothing else is known.


The Son of Seraiah, who the Chronicler reports was taken into exile (2 Chr. 6.15).

“and Jehozadak went into exile when the LORD sent Judah and Jerusalem into exile by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.”

Very likely, Jehozadak was never the High Priest, but his son (direct descendent?), Jeshua will help lead the people back to the land after 70 years of Exile.

Propose List of High Priests from Aaron to the Exile

  • Exodus to Conquest Period
  • Aaron – The First High Priest, of the tribe of Levi of course, High Priest during the Wilderness Journey, died shortly before its ends.
  • Eleazar – Aaron’s eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu were killed for using strange fire, thus the High Priesthood came to him. Aaron’s fourth son is Ithamar. Eleazar is High Priest during the Joshua Conquest, dies after Joshua (Josh. 24.33).
  • Judges Period
  • Phinehas – Noted for his loyalty and zeal during the Peor Incident (Numbers 31), served at Bethel (Judges 20.28) during the time of the war with Benjamin.
  • Abishua – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.5
  • Bukki – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4. 2 Esdras 1.2 he is called Borith and 1 Esdras 8.2 Boccas. Note that Samartians split the High Priesthood here, Shesha is said to have succeeded instead, Shesha being a different son of Abishua.
  • Uzzi – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4
  • Note there may be a gap here or Zerhiah and Meraioth may belong here, of them we know nothing save their names in genealogical listing. (See Lightfoot Temple Service IV Sec. 1)
  • Eli – No longer from the descendents of Eleazar, but instead from Aaron’s fourth son, Ithamar, High Priest for forty years during the waning years of the Judges who served at Shiloh. His sons misdeeds caused the High Priesthood to be removed from Ithamar in time to the specific descendants of Eleazar the Zadokites.
  • Phinehas – Not High Priest, but likely preformed duties as Eli grew old and his eyes dimmed
  • Early Kingdom Period
  • Ahitub – Brother of Ichabod, only mentioned in connection to his sons Ahijah and Ahimelech
  • Ahijah – or Ahiah, ministered at Shiloh, wore ephod early in Saul’s reign, who consults the ephod on whether Saul would win a battle or not
  • Ahimelech – Brother of Ahijah, ministered at Nob, unwittingly helped David against Saul, in revenge, Saul would kill Ahimelech with 84 other priests at Nob
  • Abiathar and Zadok – Both were High Priests during the reign of David and early reign of Solomon, Abiathar is eventually dispose for supporting Adonijah, Zadok becomes sole High Priest and his line is seen the legitimate priestly line.
  • Ahimelech (II) – Son of Abiathar, but never high priest, but like Phinehas may have done some High Priestly duties as Abiathar was quite old during Solomon’s time.
  • First Temple Period
  • Ahimaaz – Son of Zadok, like Ahimelech (II) while never stated to be a High Priest he may have done certain High Priestly duties
  • Azariah (I) – Officer in Solomon’s court, and likely the one reference in 1 Chronicles 6 as serving in Solomon’s Temple also notw 1 Kings 4.2
  • Johanah – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.5
  • Uncertain, but there seems to be a gap, clearly the biblical record gives the name of Amariah and Jehoiada, but the genealogies do not, which is especially strange for Jehoiada! Who were the Priests in Abijah and Asa’s reign?
  • Amariah (I) – Served in Jehoshaphat’s court over religious matters (2 Chronicles 19.11)
  • Jehoiada – One of the most famous High Priests who did so much for Judah that he was buried among the kings (2 Chronicles 24 and 2 Kings 12)
  • Pediah – Not Biblical, but assuming Josephus and Seder Olam may have other sources, this would make Zechariah the grandson of Jehoiada, not son
  • Was Zechariah the son or grandson of Jehoiada and was he a High Priest or not?
  • Azariah (II) – The priest who stood against king Uzziah who wanted to burn incense in the temple (2 Chronicles 26.20)
  • Urijah (Ahaz) – High Priest who built pagan altar, may be why he was omitted from genealogies.
  • Azariah (III) (Hezekiah) (2 Chronicles 31.10)
  • Odeas/Hosaiah – Not Biblical, but assuming Josephus and Seder Olam may have other sources. Note Amariah (II), Ahitub (II), Meraioth, Zadok (II) are mentioned only in Genealogies, most likely textual corruption or reinforcement that Hilkiah was a Zadokite priest.
  • Shallum– Only mentioned in Genealogies
  • Hilikiah (Josiah) (2 Kings 22; 23; 2 Chronicles 34)
  • Azariah (IV) – Only mentioned in Genealogies
  • Seraiah (Zedekiah) High Priest during the exile and executed by Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah (2 Kings 25.18; Jeremiah 52.24)
  • Jehozadak – Seraiah’s son, but likely never actually the High Priest.

The Seder Olam Zuta

  • Zadok (Solomon)
  • Ahimaaz (King Rehoboam)
  • Azariah (I) (Abijah)
  • Johoram (Asa)
  • Joahaz (Jehoshaphat) Identical with Amariah (I)?
  • Jehoiarib/Jehoiada (Jehoram)
  • Jehoshaphat/Joshua (Ahaziah)
  • Jehoiada (Athaliah and Joash)
  • Pedaiah (Joash)
  • Zedekiah (Amaziah)
  • Joel (Uzziah) Identical with Azariah (II)?
  • Jotham (Jotham)
  • Uriah (Ahaz)
  • Neriah (Hezekiah) Identical with Azariah (III)?
  • Hoshaiah (Manasseh)
  • Shallum (Amon)
  • Hilikiah (Josiah and Jehoahaz)
  • Azariah (IV) (Jehoiakim)
  • Seraiah (Jehoiachin)
  • Jehozadak (Zedekiah)

Josephus’s Listing

  • Zadok
  • Ahimaaz High Priest
  • Azariah (I)
  • Joram
  • Isus (Jos) – Jehoshaphat?
  • Axioram – Jehoiada?
  • Phideas – Pediah?
  • Soudai/Sudaiah – Zedekiah? Zechariah?
  • Jouel/Joel
  • Jotham
  • Ourias/Urijah
  • Nerias – Neriah
  • Odaias /Odaiah – Hoshaiah?
  • Shallum
  • Hilikiah
  • Azariah (IV)
  • Seraiah
  • Jehozadak

The Angelic Women of Zechariah 5.9-11

In 5.9 of Zechariah, the prophet is confronted with a vision of wickedness (seen as a woman) being removed from the land. In that vision, the prophet also sees two women with wings like storks who do the job of flying wickedness away.

The question is who are these women? Especially as it seems that the prophet knew, after all, he does not ask about them, but modern scholars certainly have.[1]  Are they the agents of Yahweh or rather are they demonic forces who bends to his will?

They are described as having “wind/spirit is in their wings,” and having “wings like the wings of the stork.” The former statement implies that they have wings and they are airborne.[2] The use of the Hebrew term ר֫וּחַ, rûaḥ, also suggests that these figures are God’s servants. The word which can be translated as wind or spirit, could be a sign of God’s spirit “empowering the two,” just as God’s spirit strengthened Zerubbbabel (Zech. 4.6).[3]  God’s rûaḥ worked in creation (Gen. 1.2), opened and shut the Red Sea (Ex. 15.8,10, 2 Sam 22.16), in Ezekiel it brought the dead to life (37.1-14).[4] Thus because of the “words double meaning” it could be translated as “the Spirit was in their wings,” and points that the removal of Wickedness is from God’s hand.[5] The wind can be seen as Yahweh’s agents in several other passages (Gen. 8.1; Ex 15.10; Jer. 10.13; Num. 11.31).[6]

Scholars have also noted that these angelic woman share certain affinities with the cherubim seen in other Old Testament passages. For example, “the wind in their wings” is a similar phrased used of cherubim in 2 Samuel 22.11; Psalm 17.10 “wings of the wind” and in Hosea 4.19 “wind in its wings.”[7] This in itself would seem to indicate that these angelic-like creatures are Yahweh’s agents.[8] (See Above)

Their task in Zechariah 5.9-11 is also similar to the task of the Cherubim in Ezekiel 8-11 and other divine creatures. For example, Ezekiel 11.22-23 the Cherubim remove God’s glory from Jerusalem as the winged women here remove personified wickedness from Judah.[9] One could also note that the winged move in the same space as that of the prophet Ezekiel (Ezek 8.3) and the Angel of the Lord (1 Chr 21.16) another indication they are YHWH’s agents.[10] Their motions also seemed similar to that God’s chariot in Ezekiel’s initial vision.[11]

They are given the task of caring the ephah to Babylonia, but do they do this of their volition or not? As Sals noted, “that they carry unrighteousness away is surely to Israel’s advantage.”[12] Moreover their task, ridding the land of wickedness-sin, is one which only Yahweh can do, and a major theme of Zechariah seems to be of God’s divine actions.[13]

Most scholars agree that these figures should not be seen as female cherubim. These winged women seem the only ones fit to carry the ephah to Shinar, perhaps because, of the Cherubim general proximity to Yahweh, compared to these figures.[14] Or as Peterson noted, “Yahweh could not touch the evil and sin-guilt, but he could provide the power for its removal.”[15]

Their wings are likened to that storks. The majority of scholars think the liking of the wings have some “symbolic significance.”[16]

For some, they look at the negative connotations of the stork, specifically, Leviticus 11.19 and Deuteronomy 14.18 the stork are listed as an unclean animal, and some argue their unclean status would make them “suitable carries of the guilt.”[17] (See Rudman “Zechariah and Priestley Law” and Merrill Zechariah) Others point to the negative image given to it in Exodus 11.13-19.[18] (Conrad Zechariah 120).

Others maintain that it may be positive. For example, the Hebrew word for stork “חֲסִידָה” has its root חָסַד which means “to be kind” or to “show mercy,” perhaps a reflection of how the bird cares for its young.[19] Others point to Jeremiah 8.7 where the stork is seen as a “pious, compassionate, and true to God.”[20] As “This same tender care,” George Klien noted of the Storks, “for the helpless young marks the Lord’s treatment of his “young,” the Israelites.”[21]

It could also be simply that Zechariah was trying to describe the wings of these women as best as he could.[22] Or that the women went north worth, as a stork migrates, and so the writer associated their wings with that.[23]

While there can be no certainty with what these creatures are I think that Tiemeyer concluded correctly that, “the textual evidence in Zech 5:9-11, as well as the comparable biblical and non-biblical material, implies that the two winged women are God’s agents.”[24]


                                [1] Lena-Sofia Tiemeyer, Zechariah and his Vision (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015), 228

                                [2] Ibid., 228.

                                [3] Ibid., 229.

                [4] Joyce G. Baldwin, vol. 28, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi: An Introduction and Commentary, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1972), 128.

                                [5] Ibid., 137

                [6] David L. Peterson, Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 (Old Testament Library), (The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1984) 259.

                                [7] Tiemeyer, 228.

                                [8] Ibid.

                                [9] Ibid.

                                [10] Ibid.

                                [11] Ibid.

                [12] Ulrike Sals, “Reading Zechariah 5.5-11: Prophecy, Gender and (Ap)Perception,” in Athalya Brenner Prophets and Daniel (A Feminist Companion to the Bible. Second Series, (Sheffield Academic Press, New York, 2001), 199.

                [13] George L. Klein, vol. 21B, Zechariah, New American Commentary (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2008), 179.

                [14] Tiemeyer, 228-29.

                [15] Peterson, 259.

                [16] Tiemeyer, 230.

                [17] Tiemeyer, 231.

                [18] Ibid.

                [19] Ibid., 230.

                [20] Ibid., 230-31.

[21] Klien, 179

                [22] Tiemeyer, 232.

                [23] Carol L. Meyers and Eric M. Meyers, Haggai, Zechariah 1-8: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary, Includes Indexes. (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008), 306.

                [24] Tiemeyer, 233.

Genesis 6.1-8 As Fall of Angel Interpretations From 150 BC – 400 AD

The following was a set of quotations that I produced for set of teaching on Genesis 6.1-8, the passage with the Sons of God, Nephilim, and the Heroes of Old. They go from Biblical, to Pseudepigraphal, to interpretations found in the Church Fathers and some Jewish documents. This is of course, not a full set of quotations, and more could probably be said. But its a good basis to see how widespread the view that the events in Genesis 6.1-4 specifically were seen in a supernatural light by many early interpretors. 

BibleOld TestamentUnless otherwise noted scripture quoted is the ESV, pseudepigrapha unless noted is R.H. Charles

Genesis 6.1-8 

6 When man began to multiply on the face of the land and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of man were attractive. And they took as their wives any they chose. 3 Then the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not abide in man forever, for he is flesh: his days shall be 120 years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of man and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men who were of old, the men of renown.

5 The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 And the Lord regretted that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart. 7 So the Lord said, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, man and animals and creeping things and birds of the heavens, for I am sorry that I have made them.” 8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.

Some Septuagint Comments

Notes that man manuscripts in 6.2 have “angels of God” instead of “sons of God.” Also further note that it says instead of “nephilim” and “mighty men,” it has “giants” in both spots, where it sees both as one and the same and as giants.

LXX of Ezekiel 32.12,20-21,26-27 appears to have been influenced by Genesis 6.4 Mighty Men/Men of Valor are now translated as Giants and nations seem more personified as the “Giants of Old.”

Bible –  New Testament

2 Peter 2.4

Genesis 6 or primeval fall of Satan?

For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment;

Jude, 6,7 

Again Genesis 6 or primeval fall of Satan? Note, however that the angels are linked with the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah which is specifically noted as “sexual immorality.”

And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day—just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire.

1 Corinthians 11.10

Is Paul’s reasoning based on a supernatural view of Genesis 6.1-4? See Tertullian below

That is why a wife ought to have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels.

1 Peter 3.18-20

Are the spirits here the fallen Angels of Gen 6.1-4 or Spirits of Men prior to Noah’s flood? Or something else all together?

18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, 19 in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, 20 because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.

Mark 12.24-25 (Cf. Matthew 22.29-30; Luke 20.36)

Did Christ highlight the fact that the Angels were heaven to note that those who had descended on the earth had? Or did Christ in this passage also reject the supernatural view of Genesis 6?

24 Jesus said to them, “Is this not the reason you are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God? 25 For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.

Second Temple Literature

Jubilees (ca.150)

4.22 Enoch Warning to the Watchers

And he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the daughters of men; for these had begun to unite themselves, so as to be defiled, with the daughters of men, and Enoch testified against them all.

Jubilees 5.1-11 First Account

5 And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them, that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 2 And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walks on the earth—all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men was thus evil continually. 3 And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 4 And He said that He would destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which He had created. 5 But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 6 And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion, and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are kept separate. 7 And against their sons went forth a command from before His face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed from under heaven. 8 And He said ‘My spirit shall not always abide on man; for they also are flesh and their days shall be one hundred and twenty years’. 9 And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 10 And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation, when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before the Lord. 11 And He destroyed all from their places, and there was not left one of them whom He judged not according to all their wickedness.

 Jubilees 7.21-26a Second Account

For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely, owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordinances went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 22 And they begat sons the Nephilim, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nephil, and the Nephil slew the Elyo, and the Elyo mankind, and one man another. 23 And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 24 And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moves and walks on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 25 And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 26 ‘And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark

1 Enoch 611 (Latest 165 BC Likely prior to 200 BC)

6 And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. 2 And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: ‘Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.’ 3 And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them: ‘I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.’ 4 And they all answered him and said: ‘Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.’ 5 Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. 6 And they were in all two hundred; who descended ‹in the days› of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. 7 And these are the names of their leaders: Samîazâz, their leader, Arâkîba, Râmêêl, Kôkabîêl, Tâmîêl, Râmîêl, Dânêl, Êzêqêêl, Barâqîjal, Asâêl, Armârôs, Batârêl, Anânêl, Zaqîêl, Samsâpêêl, Satarêl, Tûrêl, Jômjâêl, Sariêl. 8 These are their chiefs of tens.

7 And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. 2 And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: 3 Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. 4 And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 5 And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 6 Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.

8 And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals 〈of the earth〉 and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. 2 And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. 3 Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, ’Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîjâl (taught) astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Êzêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, 〈Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun〉, and Sariêl the course of the moon. 4 And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven …

9 And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being shed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. 2 And they said one to another: ‘The earth made †without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryings† up to the gates of heaven. 3 «And now to you, the holy ones of heaven», the souls of men make their suit, saying, “Bring our cause before the Most High.”’ 4 And they said to the Lord of the ages: ‘Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, 〈and God of the ages〉, the throne of Thy glory (standeth) unto all the generations of the ages, and Thy name holy and glorious and blessed unto all the ages! 5 Thou hast made all things, and power over all things hast Thou: and all things are naked and open in Thy sight, and Thou seest all things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. 6 Thou seest what Azâzêl hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which men were striving to learn: 7 And Semjâzâ, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. 8 And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. 9 And the women have borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. 10 And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are wrought on the earth. 11 And Thou knowest all things before they come to pass, and Thou seest these things and Thou dost suffer them, and Thou dost not say to us what we are to do to them in regard to these.’

10 Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him: 2 〈‘Go to Noah and〉 tell him in my name “Hide thyself!” and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. 3 And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.’ 4 And again the Lord said to Raphael: ‘Bind Azâzêl hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dûdâêl, and cast him therein. 5 And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. 6 And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. 7 And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. 8 And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azâzêl: to him ascribe all sin.’ 9 And to Gabriel said the Lord: ‘Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men: [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have. 10 And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and that each one of them will live five hundred years.’ 11 And the Lord said unto Michael: ‘Go, bind Semjâzâ and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves with them in all their uncleanness. 12 And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated. 13 In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: 〈and〉 to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. 14 And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. 15 And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because they have wronged mankind. 16 Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: ‹and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth› shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.

17 And then shall all the righteous escape,

And shall live till they beget thousands of children,

And all the days of their youth and their old age

Shall they complete in peace.

18 And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and be full of blessing. 19 And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield ten presses of oil. 20 And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth destroy from off the earth. 21 ‹And all the children of men shall become righteous›, and all nations shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. 22 And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.

111 And in those days I will open the store chambers of blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send them down ‹upon the earth› over the work and labour of the children of men. 2 And truth and peace shall be associated together throughout all the days of the world and throughout all the generations of men.’

Damascus Document 2.16-19 (ca. 100 BC)

Because they walked in the stubbornness of their heart the Heavenly Watchers fell; they were caught because they did not keep the commandments of God. And their sons also fell who were tall as cedar trees and whose bodies were like mountains.

Testament of Reuben 5.5-7 (ca. 150 BC)

Flee, therefore, fornication, my children, and command your wives and your daughters, that they adorn not their heads and faces to deceive the mind: because every woman who useth these wiles hath been reserved for eternal punishment. 6 For thus they allured the Watchers who were before the flood; for as these continually beheld them, they lusted after them, and they conceived the act in their mind; for they changed themselves into the shape of men, and appeared to them when they were with their husbands. 7 And the women lusting in their minds after their forms, gave birth to giants, for the Watchers appeared to them as reaching even unto heaven.

Testament of Naphtali 3.3-5 (ca. 150 BC)

The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of deceit. 4 But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of nature. 5 In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless.

Josephus 1.73 (Loeb Translation) (37-100 AD)

(iii.1) For seven generations these people continued to believe in God as Lord of the universe and in everything to take virtue for their guide; then, in course of time, they abandoned the customs of their fathers for a life of depravity. They no longer rendered to God His due honours, nor took account of justice towards men, but displayed by their actions a zeal for vice twofold greater than they had formerly shown for virtue, and thereby drew upon themselves the enmity of God.  For many angels of God now consorted with women and begat sons who were overbearing and disdainful of every virtue, such confidence had they in their strength; in fact the deeds that tradition ascribes to them resemble the audacious exploits told by the Greeks of the giants.  But Noah,  indignant at their conduct and viewing their counsels with displeasure, urged them to come to a better frame of mind and amend their ways; but seeing that, far from yielding, they were completely enslaved to the pleasure of sin, he feared that they would murder him and, with his wives and sons and his sons’ wives, quitted the country.

(2) God loved Noah for his righteousness, but, as .for those men, He condemned not them alone for their wickedness, but resolved to destroy all mankind then existing and to create another race pure of vice, abridging their term of life from its former longevity to one hundred and twenty years; he therefore converted  the dry land into sea. Thus were they all obliterated, while Noah alone was saved.

Philo of Alexandra On the Giants 6-7 (20 BC-50AD) (Quotes from Newman’s Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2,4)

Note that Philio of Alexander (20BC-50AD) also seems to have thought the union in Genesis 6 was of angels and men, however it is at times hard to be certain because of his use of allegory. In commenting on this passage  quotes the OG version of Genesis which says, Angels of God and then after quoting Genesis 6.2 notes:

It is Moses’ custom to give the name of angels to those whom other philosophers call demons [or spirits], souls that is which fly and hover in the air. And let no one suppose that what is here said is a myth.” Later Philo noted, “So, then, it is no myth at all of giants that he [Moses] sets before us; rather he wishes to show you that some men are earth-born, some heaven-born, and some God-born.” However its very likely that Philo rejected a literal mean of this passage in any case.


Targum Pseudo-Jonathan 6.1-2,4 (Extant form 7th Century AD, but quoted passage likely redates 2nd Century AD)  – Quotes from Newman

Note that Shamhazi and Azael reference 1 Enoch

And it came to pass when the sons of men began to multiply on the face of the ground, and beautiful daughters were born to them, that the sons of the great ones saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, with eyes painted and hair curled, walking in nakedness of flesh, and they conceived lustful thoughts; and they took them wives of all they chose. . . . Shamhazai and Azael fell from heaven and were on earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of the great ones came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them: the same are called men of the world, the men of renown.

Talmud (6th Century)

For the most part the interpretations in the Talmud are not supernatural, but the Talmud does in places see a supernatural view such as Yoma67b where we read of the affair of Uza and Aza’el, a reference to 1 Enoch and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan also Nid. 61a speak of Ahijah son of Shamhazai

The School of R. Ishmael taught: Azazel — [it was so called] because it obtains atonement for the affair of Uza and Aza’el.

And the Lord said unto Moses: Fear him not. Consider: Sihon and Og were brothers, for a Master stated, ‘Sihon nad Og were the sons of Ahijah the son of Shmahazai’

Church Fathers

Justin (c.100-c.165) 2 Apology 5

[God] committed the care of men and of all things under heaven to angels whom He appointed over them. But the angels transgressed this appointment, and were captivated by love of women, and begat children who are those that are called demons; and besides, they afterwards subdued the human race to themselves, partly by magical writings, and partly by fears and the punishments they occasioned, and partly by teaching them to offer sacrifices, and incense, and libations, of which things they stood in need after they were enslaved by lustful passions; and among men they sowed murders, wars, adulteries, intemperate deeds, and all wickedness. Whence also the poets and mythologists, not knowing that it was the angels and those demons who had been begotten by them that did these things to men, and women, and cities, and nations, which they related, ascribed them to god himself, and to those who were accounted to be his very offspring, and to the offspring of those who were called his brother), Neptune and Pluto, and to the children again of these their offspring. For whatever name each of the angels had given to himself and his children, by that name they called them.

Irenaeus (c.115-202) Demonstration 18-19 – Note Irenaeus Appears to Reference 1 Enoch 7

  1. And for a very long while wickedness extended and spread, and reached and laid hold upon the whole race of mankind, until a very small seed of righteousness remained among them: and illicit unions took place upon the earth, since angels were united with the daughters of the race of mankind; and they bore to them sons who for their exceeding greatness were called giants. And the angels brought as presents to their wives teachings of wickedness. in that they brought them the virtues of roots and herbs, dyeing in colours and cosmetics, the discovery of rare substances, love-potions, aversions, amours, concupiscence, constraints of love, spells of bewitchment, and all sorcery and idolatry hateful to God; by the entry of which things into the world evil extended and spread, while righteousness was diminished and enfeebled. 19. Until judgment came upon the world from God by means of a flood…

Tertullian (c.160-225) On Prayer 22.5Note 1 Corinthians 11.5

“Of course, it is on account of the angels, he says, that the woman’s head is to be covered,3 because the angels revolted from God on account of the daughters of men.”

Idolatry 9

One proposition I lay down: that those angels, the deserters from God, the lovers of women, were likewise the discoverers of this curious art, on that account also condemned by God

Lactantius Divine Institutes 2.15 (240-320)

When, therefore, the number of men had begun to increase, God in His forethought, lest the devil, to whom from the beginning He had given power over the earth, should by his subtilty either corrupt or destroy men, as he had done at first, sent angels for the protection and improvement of the human race; and inasmuch as He had given these a free will, He enjoined them above all things not to defile themselves with contamination from the earth, and thus lose the dignity of their heavenly nature. He plainly prohibited them from doing that which He knew that they would do, that they might entertain no hope of pardon. Therefore, while they abode among men, that most deceitful ruler of the earth, by his very association, gradually enticed them to vices, and polluted them by intercourse with women. Then, not being admitted into heaven on account of the sins into which they had plunged themselves, they fell to the earth. Thus from angels the devil makes them to become his satellites and attendants. But they who were born from these, because they were neither angels nor men, but bearing a kind of mixed nature, were not admitted into hell, as their fathers were not into heaven. Thus there came to be two kinds of demons; one of heaven, the other of the earth.

Sulpicius Severus (363-420) History 1.2

When by this time the human race had increased to a great multitude, certain angels,whose habitation was in heaven, were captivated by the appearance of some beautiful virgins, and cherished illicit desires after them, so much so, that filling beneath their own proper nature and origin, they left the higher regions of which they were inhabitants, and allied themselves in earthly marriages. These angels gradually spreading wicked habits, corrupted the human family, and from their alliance giants are said to have sprung, for the mixture with them of beings of a different nature, as a matter of course, gave birth to monsters.

High Priest of Israel Part Two: From Eli to Zadok – Who?

A while back, although the last thing I posted, I looked at the listing of the High Priest from Aaron to Eli. I want to return to looking at this time looking at who could have been the High Priest from Eli to Zadok. Remember that some of this is speculative. There is only so much we can glean from the biblical record, since some of the listing comes from genealogical records in the bible, (those found in 1 Chronicles 5, for example) and not from historical accounts. That is to say some High Priests mention we can only definitely say they were related to a High Priest, for the bible never actually calls them one.

The High Priest listing that I gave in the previous post from the Time of Moses to the time of Samuel were as followed:

  • Aaron – The First High Priest, of the tribe of Levi of course, High Priest during the Wilderness Journey, died shortly before its ends.
  • Eleazar – Aaron’s eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu were killed for using strange fire, thus the High Preisthood came to him. Aaron’s fourth son is Ithamar. Eleazar is High Priest during the Joshua Conquest, dies after Joshua (Josh. 24.33).
  • Phinehas – Noted for his loyalty and zeal during the Peor Incident (Numbers 31), served at Bethel (Judges 20.28) during the time of the war with Benjamin.
  • Abishua – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.5
  • Bukki – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4. 2 Esdras 1.2 he is called Borith and 1 Esdras 8.2 Boccas. Note that Samartians split the High Priesthood here, Shesha is said to have succeeded instead, Shesha being a different son of Abishua.
  • Uzzi – Mentioned only in Genealogies – 1 Chronicles 6.5 and Ezra 7.4
  • Eli – No longer from the descendents of Eleazar, but instead from Aaron’s fourth son, Ithamar, High Priest for forty years during the waning years of the Judges who served at Shiloh. His sons misdeeds caused the High Priesthood to be removed from Ithamar in time to the specific descendants of Eleazar the Zadokites.

So who are the High Priests that followed Eli?

During Eli’s tenure the functions of the priesthood appear to have happened at Shiloh. He is described as Juding for forty years (1 Sam 4.18) and many scholars equate his years of Judging with High Priesthood, because of the sins of his sons and his failure to condemned them, the Line of Ithamar would lose the High Priesthood. (1 Sam 2.27-36; 3.11-18).

This would be fulfilled in parts, firstly with this sons deaths, the deaths of the priest at Nob, and finally with Abiathar’s removal from the High Priesthood. Eli himself we are told, died when he heard the report of the deaths of his sons and the loss of the Ark.

 As soon as he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell over backward from his seat by the side of the gate, and his neck was broken and he died, for the man was old and heavy. He had judged Israel forty years. – 1 Samuel 4.18

At the time of his death, he was 98 years old, basically blind (1 Sam. 3.2; 4.15), and extremely over weight (4.18;cf.  2.29). Because of this, some ponder if, one of Eli’s sons ever served as High Priest? For both certainly served as lesser priests.

Phinehas is said to have according to Josephus in his Antiquities V.11.2

Phinehas was already acting as high priest, his father having made way for him by reason of old age.

Rabbinic Litearture also felt the same, since if Eli was blind, he would have been disqualified from the office.

If this is the case, would Phinehas have been seen as High Priest? Or only in all by title? In either case, Phinehas, along with his brother are killed at the battle of Aphek and the title falls to his eldest son Ahitub.

Phinehas other known son, Ichabod, was born the day of his death, although not the High Priest some scholars speculate if he was prominent due to his brother being referred as the brother of Ichabod.

Ahitub is the brother of Ichabod. He is mentioned briefly in 1 Samuel 14.3 as being the father of Ahijah and in 1 Samuel 22 as being the father of Ahimelech. Other than this we don’t know much. Likely became the High Priest after Eli, but perhaps his father Phinehas had held the role.

He should not be confused with the father of Zadok in 2 Samuel 8.15-17, nor with the Ahitub of 1 Chronicles 6.11-12 or Nehemiah 11.11.

Thus all we can say is that after Eli (and maybe Phinehas see above), Ahitub was High Priest and he had two sons that we know of Ahijah and Ahimelek. (Although some argue that Ahijah/Ahiah may have been one in the same, I rather see them as two brothers, sons of Ahitub). His tenure would have been during the early days of Samuel judgeship.

Ahijah (also known as Ahiah) he appears to have been the High Priest during the early part of Saul’s reign. Like Eli he ministered at Shiloh and wore an ephod.

1 Samuel 14.3 relates that among Saul’s troops at Gibeah included

“Ahijah the son of Ahitub, Icahbod’s brother, son of Phinehas, son of Eli, the priest of the LORD in Shiloh wearing an ephod.”

The Priest of the Lord in Shiloh refers to Eli, not Ahijah and so a question could be if the worship center had moved to Nob yet or not. Of Ahijah what we see that Saul ask him to consult the Ark/Ephod about whether he would win or not, but before Ahijah could answer, King Saul sees the confusion in the camp. (The MT has Ark, while the LXX has Ephod, and there is debate on which is meant especially in light of the Ark’s return during David’s time).

At some point, Ahijah appears to have died and is replaced by his brother, Ahimelech. (Some scholars see the two as one and the same, but I prefer the view that they’re brothers).  During Ahimelech’s tenure, the priest had moved from Shiloh to Nob, a location north of Jerusalem and close to Gibeah, Saul’s capital.

The major story of Ahimelech concerns when David visited him on the run from Saul, unknowingly helping David, Ahimelech provided him with food (the Showbread) and the sword of Goliath. Doeg the Ediomite, would run to Saul to tell the king of what had happened and in the end Ahimlech along with 84 other priests are killed and the whol town of Nob, only Abiathar would escape.

This act would deny Saul any benefit of priestly counsel and would be one of the last nails in the coffin of Ithamar’s power, fulfilling 1 Samuel 2.31ff

However, 1 Samuel 22.16 relates Saul saying

“You shall surely die, Ahimelech, you and all your father’s house.”

Later it tells us that

“But one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped and fled after David.” (1 Samuel 22.20)

Abiathar escaped the fate of the other priests of Nob and his father’s house, he flees and stays with David during the wilderness (1 Sam 22.20-23). Abiathar evidently escaped with the ephod, in David’s wilderness adventures the future king makes use of this (1 Sam 23.6, 9-10; 30.7,8). However it appears that Abiathar would eventually share the High Priesthood with Zadok (2 Samuel 8.17) and throughout the account in Samuel we see the two working together. Near the beginning of Solomon’s reign, however, Abiathar miss stepped and sided with Adonijah for the throne, “He conferred with Joab the son of Zeruiah and with Abiathar the priest. And they followed Adonijah and helped him.” (1 King 1.7)

In response, Solomon expelled Abiathar from the priesthood giving it to Zadok (1 King 2.26,27, 35).

The king put Benaiah the son of Jehoiada over the army in place of Joab, and the king put Zadok the priest in the place of Abiathar. – 1 Kings 2.35

And exiled him to Anathoth

And to Abiathar the priest the king said, “Go to Anathoth, to your estate, for you deserve death. But I will not at this time put you to death, because you carried the ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because you shared in all my father’s affliction.” – 1 Kings 2.26

Abiathar’s son Jonathan appears at several points in the historic accounts (2 Sam. 15.36; 1 Kgs 1.42) where he acted as a messenger for David with Zadok’s son Ahimaaz, he would also bring news to Adonijah that Solomon had been anointed king (1 Kgs 1.41-48) and likely along with Abiathar was banished to Anathoth.

Abiathar’s other son Ahimelech (II), likely preformed some High Priestly duties, although he was likely never a High Priest himself. Several biblical passages pair him with Zadok. In 1 Chronicles he helped to organize the priests in two 24 class (1 Chronicles 24.3, 6). His mention in 2 Samuel 8.17 and 1 Chronicles 18.16 is often taken as a scribal error, but these could be explained as his taking over certain duties of his father who was an advance age.

Abiathar it should be noted he was already seventy at the time of Abasolom’s  rebellion and so it’s likely that Ahimelech took over some of his father’s duties. However, when Abiathar sided with Adonjiah, instead of Solomon, he ended Ithamar’s participation in the High Priesthood, and Ahimelech, nor Jonathan had a chance to be a High Priest officially.

Having Looked at the Ithamar High Priest what of the line of Eleazer?

During this time, the descents of Eleazar are as follows

  • Zerahiah (Arna 2 Esdras 1.1-3)
  • Meriaiath
  • Amariah
  • Ahitub
  • Zadok

Ahitub the father of Zadok is mentioned in 1 Chronicles and 2 Samuel. This man is a different Ahitub who was the High Priest and from the line of Ithamar. This Ahitub was the son of Amariah and from the line of Eleazar and was the son of the important High Priest Zadock. Of him the Bible mentions little, outside of his being the father to Zadok

and Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests, and Seraiah was secretary, – 1 Samuel 8.17

Ahitub fathered Zadok, Zadok fathered Ahimaaz, – 1 Chronicles 6.8

Zadok was the other person of the pair of High Priest under King David and who seems to have one of his many faithful officials. If Zadok is to the same person mentioned in 1 Chronicles 12.28 than he joined David at Hebron, but this is uncertain. It was the view of Josephus however:

“among them were the high priest Zadok and twenty-two kinsmen as leaders.” Josephus Antiquities 7.2.2

He would remain loyal to David when Absalom revolted and in time he would side with Benaiah and Nathan the Prophet in seeing Solomon and not Abijah as the next king of Isreal. Even anointing Solomon with the prophet

And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet there anoint him king over Israel. Then blow the trumpet and say, ‘Long live King Solomon!’ – 1 Kings 1.34

Zadok appears to have minister at the Tabernacle in Gibean, while Abiathar would minister before the Ark when it was in Jerusalem.

 And he left Zadok the priest and his brothers the priests before the tabernacle of the Lord in the high place that was at Gibeon.” 1 Chr 16.39


One final priestly figure to look at in this stage is the father of David’s Mighty Man Benaiah, Jehoiada. Jehoiada appears to have been a rather prominent Levite during David’s reign. His son, Benaiah  was a prominent military official in both David and his son’s Solomon’s reign and has a set of rather incredible deeds given to him.

Jehoiada himself appears to have been an important official for the Aaronic House, being called the “Leader of the House of Aaron,” and “the priest, as chief,” but his roles seemed more militaristic than cultic. Moreover, Abiathar and Zadok are both seen as High Priest during this period and certainly if there was a third High Priest one of the historians would have noted it.

Of the Levites 4,600. 27 The prince Jehoiada, of the house of Aaron, and with him 3,700. 28 Zadok, a young man mighty in valor, and twenty-two commanders from his own fathers’ house. – 1 Chronicles 12.26-28

The third commander, for the third month, was Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada the chief priest; in his division were 24,000. – 1 Chronicles 27.5

Some do wonder if Jehoida can be equated with Ahitub ben Amariah (Zadok’s father) due to the Zadok appear right after him in 1 Chronicles 12.28. If so, Benaiah and Zadok would be brothers and might explain why both, together, chose to side with Solomon.

One other final thing to note is the various centers of worship which have moved from Phinehas to Zadok

  • Phinehas ministered at Bethel (Judges 20.26-28)
  • Eli at Shiloh (1 Samuel 1.24)
  • Ahimelech (and perhaps also Ahijah) at Nob (1 Samuel 21.1)
  • Zadok at Gibeon (1 Chronicles 16.39)
  • Abiathar in Jerusalem and in time so too Zadok

As a side note Bethel would regain prominence under Jeroboam I who would make it one of his religious centers (1 Kings 12.29)

The High Priest from Aaron to during the Judges

  • Aaron
  • Eleazar
  • Phinehas
  • Bukki
  • Uzzi

The listing between Judges and Solomon

  • Eli
  • Phinehas – Some High Priestly Duties of Abiathar, never officially High Priest
  • Ahitub
  • Ahijah
  • Ahimelech
  • Abiathar and Zadok – Joint High Priesthood
  • Ahimelech (II) – Some High Priestly Duties of Abiathar, never officially High Priest

High Priest of Israel: from Aaron to Eli – Who?

I’ve not touched this page for too long, I’m pretty sure this is a mantra of mine on this blog, but I’ve decided to let out a few thoughts that I’ve been having on the High Priests

Recently I’ve been looking at the High Priest of peoples of God. I’ve tried my hardest to composed a listing of them, which honestly was harder than I thought. Most would turn to the genealogical accounts in 1 Chronicles, with perhaps a look at what Ezra-Nehemiah has to say. But in looking at that, we find suddenly, that several names do not appear, genealogies, actually not being always a literal father to son, but at times well known great grandfather to great grandson, or let’s make a poetic structure to this list, or something of the sort, it happens a lot more than I think the common bible reader realizes. Honestly, if one were to look at the beginning of Matthew it wouldn’t take all that long to realize that his genealogy is structured in purposeful way and with names left off.

Too often we look at these lists, okay, honestly most of us skim them in our desire to read the entirety of the Bible in  a year or outright skip them, but often when we reference the lists we think of them as something they never were. Now to be fair the list in 1 Chronicles 5 might not actually be a High Priest list, but merely a listing of Zadokite descendants, after all Eli and his line isn’t in there, but assuming that some of those of those names after Zadok are supposed to be the High Priests we still are lacking names found in the Historical books, found even in Chronicles.

Jehoiada High Priest who raised Jehoash, Azariah who served under King Uzziah, Uriah who served King Ahaz, and that’s still not mentioning Eli and his sons.

Some of those could be argued as not being the High Priest, but just an important priest, but honestly, it makes little sense for the kings to be influenced by just priests and not the chief. Jehoiada especially as he commands armies and levites to his cause to place Jehoash upon the throne against Athaliah.

The question might also be asked of who was King and High Priests when and we have some clue for some High Priests and none for others.

We could even split High Priests among the eras

In the wilderness journey the High Priests was for the most part Aaron, brother of Moses and one of the important leaders. But when he dies, prior to the promise land, his son Eleazar takes over. So that Eleazar has a little bit of the duty of High Priesthood in the wilderness journey and forward.

And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments and put them on Eleazar his son. And Aaron died there on the top of the mountain. Then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. – Numbers 20.28

Eleazar remained High Priests until his death, after Joshua and Joshua’s sections of conquests of the land.

And Eleazar the son of Aaron died, and they buried him at Gibeah, the town of Phinehas his son, which had been given him in the hill country of Ephraim. – Joshua 24.33

After him and so during the Judges Era we have his son Phinehas who is well remembered for his spearing activity (see the the account in Numbers 25 and Psalm 106.30). We see him in the days of Judges and a rather brutal time at that, with the whole war of the 11 against lowly Benjamin.

and Phinehas the son of Eleazar, son of Aaron, ministered before it in those days), saying, “Shall we go out once more to battle against our brothers, the people of Benjamin, or shall we cease?” And the Lord said, “Go up, for tomorrow I will give them into your hand.” – Judges 20.28

And here’s another random quote of Phinehas as High/Chief Priest

And Phinehas the son of Eleazar was the chief officer over them in time past; the Lord was with him. 1 Chronicles 9.20

But that’s it, and we don’t see another High Priest until we find Eli with the tabernacle (actually 1 Samuel calls it a Temple, does that mean it was so stationary a building had been built, prior to David? That’s neither here nor there).

But there honestly should have been someone between the two and really, why is Eli High Priest any how? The suggestion is that Between Phinehas and Eli is


Outside of the listing of names we don’t have anything else. Just stuff like:

And Abishua begat Bukki, and Bukki begat Uzzi, – 1 Chronicles 6.5

Then in beginning of Samuel we are introduced to Eli who is descended not from Eleazar, but Aaron’s other son Ithamar. (So the question is are these men who became High Priests or just proof that Joshua(High Priest with Zerubbabel) came from Aaron? Moreover, what in the world happened to Uzzi or his kids that for a brief point the line of the High Priests when from Eleazar’s kin to Ithamar’s?

The best we can do is speculate because we simply don’t have a clue. Perhaps Zerahiah was born late in Uzzi’s life and he died before Zerahiah could assume the role, (i.e. Zerahiah was not 30) and Eli could and so Eli and his family remained the High Priest until Abiathar.

(An aside we think that Eli was from Ithamar based in part on 1 Chronicles 24.3, Ahimelech, who is one of Abiathar’s son is listed among the sons of Ithamar. Josephus in his Antiquities Book 5.361 also felt Eli came from Ithamar)

Anyways, Eli was 98 when died and it seemed he judged Israel 40 years (which most assume is also when he began with tenure as High Priest, so likely he was 49 when the Priesthood came to him).

Now Eli was ninety-eight years old and his eyes were set so that he could not see. – 1 Samuel 4.15

As soon as he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell over backward from his seat by the side of the gate, and his neck was broken and he died, for the man was old and heavy. He had judged Israel forty years. 1 Samuel 4.18

The question which might be asked is who succeeded Eli and it appears to be his grandson, Ahitub, it might also be also be wondered did his son Phinehas do High Priestly duties? Since the High Priest isn’t supposed to retire? Yet Eli being blind would have had a hard time doing it?

Anyways, this gives us an idea, speculative albeit between Phinehas and Eli who were the High Priest of Israel during the time of the Judges. That is:

Phinehas ben Eleazar
Abishua ben Phinehas
Bukki ben Abishua
Uzzi ben Bukki
Eli ben Ithamar (as in the family of)

As I said, for Abishua, Bukki, and Uzzi we known nothing more than names and kids and so you can take that however you want. (Some have in fact tried to give Phinehas a rather long life and make him High Priest until Eli; I’m not convinced of that).

Anyhow those are some initial thoughts (hence lack citations). Later I hope to do from Ahitub to Azariah that is from Saul to David.

Josef Horovitz on the Ethiopian Maccabees

The following is an Article written by Josef Horovitz, it is machine translated by Google with a few fix ups. But I would still consider it quite rough.

The Original German follows , the English so if anyone who knows German would like to help me fix this up please let me know. The original article can be found on Google books here

The Article also contain the first Ethiopian Maccabees in the Ge’ez and a German translation as well. Since information is so sparse concerning these works I figured I try and help get a little more information out.

The Ethiopian Maccabees

By Josef Horovitz.

The description which L. Goldschmidt[1] gives from the Frankfurt Codex Ruppell II 7 prompted me several years ago to read this manuscript. His polemic remarks against Dillmann proved to be, as expected, unjustified; but to allow others a final judgment, it is perhaps not superfluous if I publish the extracts and summary that I have made. The characteristics which Dillmann has given ABBADIE’schen manuscript of the Ethiopian Maccabees,[2] as well as occasional quotes in his dictionary to prove that it contains the same book as the Frankfurt manuscript, as well, as the manuscripts of the British Museum, of which I have compared in several places, matches the Frankfur.[3] The Frankfurt manuscript is not unique.

At the end of all the manuscripts it indicates, that the book consists of three sections (); in the Frankfurt manuscript I have found only two outwardly separated sections. All the manuscripts are young (18th century); I could not determine the date of the work.

It was also known in Abyssinia (s. Fetḥa Nagast, ed. Guidi S. 18), that there “are two book in the history of the Maccabees,” but the real Maccabees have been translated late, after the vulgate, into Ethiopian.[4] The book treated here, remembers only a few names and the refusal of the heroes to sacrifice to idols, from our Maccabees.[5] When our maccabean heroes and martyrs start appearing Abijä, Silä and Phentos appear. The names of the first two are otherwise represented in the calendar of the saints (according to Hiob Ludolf, these are the saints of the 21st and 30th of January), the third name I could not find anywhere else. Besides these, another two nameless maccabean brother appear in the first part, all five suffer under the cruel king Ṣiruṣaidān (= Tyre + Sidon)[6] martyrdom.

Only later is the speech of Maqäbis, the Moabite ancestor of the Maccabees, and by his sons Makabjos, Maqäbjos and Judah and in another place is also called Mattathias. The Biblical chronology of the author is in the greatest confusion and a coherent story is not often apparent. A large space is given to hortatory speeches and the the Pseudepigrapha in Ethiopia are highly used. How, depends on the writer, however it is to prove the resurrection of the dead; although he opposes the views of the Sadducees, Pharisees, Samaritans, he never forgets that that this is an Old Testament book , and so Christ is nowhere mentioned.[7]

Now the original German Follows

Das äthiopische Maccabäerbuch.

Von Josef Horovitz.

Die Beschreibung, welche L. Goldschmidt[8] von dem Frankfurter Codex Rüppel II 7 giebt, hat mich vor mehreren Jahren veranlasst, diese Handschrift durchzulesen. Seine polemischen Bemerkungen gegen Dillmann erweisen sich zwar, wie zu erwarten war, als unberechtigt; aber um auch anderen ein endgiltiges Urteil zu ermöglichen, ist es vielleicht nicht überflüssig, wenn ich die Auszüge und die Inhaltsangabe, die ich angefertigt habe, veröffentliche. Die Charakteristik, welche Dillmann nach der ABBADIE’schen Handschrift von dem äthiopischen Maccabäerbuche gegeben hat,[9] sowie gelegentliche Zitate in seinem Lexikon beweisen, dass sie dasselbe Buch enthält wie die Frankfurter Handschrift; ebenso stimmen die Handschriften des British Museum, von denen ich eine an mehreren Stellen verglichen habe, mit der Frankfurter überein.[10] Die Frankfurter Handschrift ist also kein Unicum.

Am Ende aller Handschriften wird angegeben, dass das Buch aus drei Abschnitten (•flrh.C) bestehe; in der Frankfurter Handschrift habe ich allerdings nur zwei auch äusserlich voneinander getrennte Abschnitte gefunden. Alle Handschriften sind jung (18. Jahrhundert); die Entstehungszeit des Buches konnte ich nicht bestimmen.

Man wusste auch in Abessinien (s. Fetha Nagast, ed. Guidi S. 18), dass es »zwei Bücher der Geschichte der Maccabäer« giebt, aber die wirklichen Maccabäerbücher wurden erst spät nach der Vulgata ins Aethiopische übersetzt.[11] Das hier behandelte Buch erinnert nur durch einige Namen und die Weigerung der Helden, den Götzen zu opfern, an unsere Maccabäerbücher.[12] Als maccabäische Helden und Märtyrer treten zunächst nur Abijä, Silä und Phentos auf. Die Namen der beiden ersten sind auch sonst im Heiligenkalender vertreten (nach Hiob Ludolf sind es die Heiligen des 21. und 30. Januar), den des dritten konnte ich sonst nicht finden. Ausser diesen erscheinen im ersten Teil noch zwei namenlose maccabäische Brüder und alle fünf erleiden unter dem grausamen König Ṣiruṣaidān (= Tyrus -fSidon)[13]den Märtyrertod.

Erst später ist von Maqäbis die Rede, dem moabitischen Stammvater der Maccabäer, und von seinen Söhnen Makabjos, Maqäbjos und Jehuda und an einer anderen Stelle wird auch Mattathias genannt. Die biblische Chronologie ist bei dem Verfasser in die grösste Verwirrung geraten und eine zusammenhängende Erzählung vielfach überhaupt nicht herauszuschälen. Einen grossen Raum nehmen die paränetischen Reden ein, und sehr stark sind die in Abessinien verbreiteten Pseudepigraphen ausgebeutet. Das, worauf es dem Verfasser aber vor allem ankommt, ist, die Auferstehung der Toten zu beweisen; obwohl er die Ansichten der Sadducäer, Pharisäer, Samaritaner bekämpft, vergisst er nie, dass es sich um ein alttestamentliches Buch handeln soll, ud so ist denn von Christus nirgends die Rede.[14]

In den Auszugen habe ich die Orthographie de Frankfurter Handschrift beibehalten und die Schribung von

English FootNotes

[1] The Ethiopian manuscripts of the public library of Frankfurt a. M.S. 21.

[2] Lexicon, Prolegomena p. XI.

[3] Wright, Catalogue X 3, XI 9, XV 7, XXVI 10, XXVIII 5, XXXI 2, XXXII 1. Other manuscripts Conti Rossini does not know (Rendiconti Lincei Series V vol. VIII p. 625).

[4] Wright, Catalogue XV 8, XXVIII 4, XXX 1.

[5] Whether the representation of the martyrdom of the Maccabees in Seneksär comes from ours or the wrong Maccabees, unfortunately I could not tell.

[6] So Dillmann 1.C.

[7] Perhaps the author has used besides Matthew also Zënā Ajhūd as a source.

The German Footnotes

[8] Die abessynischen Handschriften der Stadtbibliothek tu Frankfurt a. M. S. 21.

[9] Lexicon, Prolegomena p. XI.

[10] Wright, Catalogue X 3, XI 9, XV 7, XXVI 10, XXVIII 5, XXXI 2, XXXII 1. Andere Handschriften kennt auch Conti Rossini (Rendiconti Lincei Serie V vol. VIII p. 625) nicht.

[11] Wright, Catalogue XV 8, XXVIII 4, XXX 1.

[12] Ob die Darstellung des Martyriums der Maccabäer im Seneksär unseren oder dem falschen Maccabäerbuch entstammt, konnte ich leider nicht feststellen.

[13] So schon Dillmann 1. c.

[14] Vielleicht hat der Berfasser ausser Matthäus hier aurch Zena Ajhud als Quelle benutzt.



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